Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2009;62(06):633-41 - Vol. 62 Num.06 DOI: 10.1016/S1885-5857(09)72227-3

Alcohol Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in a Mediterranean Cohort: The SUN Study

Jorge M. Núñez-Córdoba a, Miguel A. Martínez-González a, Maira Bes-Rastrollo a, Estefanía Toledo a, Juan J. Beunza a, Álvaro Alonso b

a Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
b Departamento de Epidemiología y Salud Comunitaria, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

Keywords

Hypertension. Red wine. Alcohol consumption pattern. Prospective studies. Mediterranean diet.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives. To assess prospectively the association between alcohol consumption, including alcoholic beverage preference and days of consumption per week, and the risk of hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods. We prospectively followed 9963 Spanish men and women initially without hypertension. Selfreported and validated data on diet and hypertension diagnoses were collected. Results. During follow-up (median [interquartile range], 4.2 [2.5-6.1] years), 554 incident cases of hypertension were identified over a total of 43 562 person-years. The hazard ratio for hypertension among those who consumed alcohol on ≥5 days per week was 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.7) compared to abstainers. Among those who drank alcohol ≥5 days per week, the hazard ratio for hypertension associated with consuming ≥1 drink per day was 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2) compared to abstainers. The consumption of beer or spirits, but not wine, was associated with an increased risk of hypertension. The hazard ratio associated with consuming >0.5 drinks of beer per day was 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.18- 1.99) compared with abstainers. In contrast, there as a nonsignificant inverse association between red wine intake and the risk of hypertension. Conclusions. In this Mediterranean population, the consumption of beer or spirits, but not wine, was associated with an ihigher risk of developing hypertension. However, the weekly pattern of alcohol consumption did not have a significant impact on the risk of hypertension.

1885-5857/© 2009 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved

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