Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2011;64:295-304 - Vol. 64 Num.04 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2010.11.005

Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Spain in the First Decade of the 21st Century, a Pooled Analysis With Individual Data From 11 Population-Based Studies: the DARIOS Study

María Grau a, Roberto Elosua a,b, Antonio Cabrera de León c,d, María Jesús Guembe e,f, José Miguel Baena-Díez a,g, Tomás Vega Alonso h, Francisco Javier Félix i, Belén Zorrilla j, Fernando Rigo k, José Lapetra l,m, Diana Gavrila b,n, Antonio Segura o, Héctor Sanz a, Daniel Fernández-Bergés p, Montserrat Fitó m,q, Jaume Marrugat a,

a Grupo de Epidemiología y Genética Cardiovascular, Programa de Investigación en Procesos Inflamatorios y Cardiovasculares, Instituto Municipal de Investigación Médica, Barcelona, Spain
b CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain
c Unidad de Investigación de Atención Primaria y del Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
d Área de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
e Servicio de Docencia y Desarrollo Sanitarios, Departamento de Salud, Gobierno de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
f Grupo de Investigación Riesgo Vascular en Navarra (RIVANA), Departamento de Salud, Gobierno de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
g Centro de Salud La Marina e Institut d’Investigació en Atenció Primària Jordi Gol, Institut Català de la Salut, Barcelona, Spain
h Dirección General de Salud Pública e Investigación Desarrollo e Innovación, Consejería de Sanidad de la Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid, Spain
i Centro de Salud Villanueva Norte, Servicio Extremeño de Salud, Villanueva de la Serena, Badajoz, Spain
j Subdirección General de Promoción de la Salud y Prevención, Consejería de Sanidad de la Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
k Grupo Cardiovascular de Baleares de redIAPP, UB Genova, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares, Spain
l Centro de Salud Universitario San Pablo, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Sevilla, Spain
m CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
n Servicio de Epidemiología, Consejería de Sanidad y Consumo de la Región de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
o Servicio de Investigación, Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud de Castilla-La Mancha, Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain
p Unidad de Investigación Don Benito Villanueva, Programa de Investigación Cardiovascular, Fundesalud, Gerencia Área Sanitaria Don Benito-Villanueva, Badajoz, Spain
q Grupo de Riesgo Cardiovascular y Nutrición, Programa de Investigación en Procesos Inflamatorios y Cardiovasculares, Instituto Municipal de Investigación Médica, Barcelona, Spain

Keywords

Cardiovascular diseases. Risk factors. Lipids. Blood pressure. Diabetes mellitus. Mortality. Obesity. Smoking. Epidemiology. Prevalence.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives

To estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in individuals aged 35-74 years in 10 of Spain's autonomous communities and determine the geographic variation of cardiovascular risk factors distribution.

Methods

Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. The average response rate was 73%. Lipid profile (with laboratory cross-validation), glucose level, blood pressure, waist circumference, height, and weight were measured and standard questionnaires administered. Age-standardized prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity in the European population were calculated. Furthermore, the coefficient of variation between component studies was determined for the prevalence of each risk factor.

Results

In total, 28,887 participants were included. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors were high blood pressure (47% in men, 39% in women), total cholesterol ≥250mg/dL (43% and 40%, respectively), obesity (29% and 29%, respectively), tobacco use (33% and 21%, respectively), and diabetes (16% and 11%, respectively). Total cholesterol ≥190 and ≥250mg/dL were the respective minimum and maximum coefficients of variation (7%-24% in men, 7%-26% in women). Average concordance in lipid measurements between laboratories was excellent.

Conclusions

Prevalence of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco use and diabetes is high. Little variation was observed between autonomous communities in the population aged 35-74 years. However, presence of the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors in the Canary Islands, Extremadura and Andalusia was greater than the mean of the 11 studies.

1885-5857/© 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved

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