Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2015;68:290-7 - Vol. 68 Num.04 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2014.09.019

Greater Adherence to a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Is Associated With Improved Plasma Lipid Profile: the Aragon Health Workers Study Cohort

José L. Peñalvo a,, Belén Oliva a, Mercedes Sotos-Prieto a,b, Irina Uzhova a, Belén Moreno-Franco c, Montserrat León-Latre c, José María Ordovás a,d

a Área de Epidemiología y Genética de Poblaciones, Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain
b Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
c Unidad de Prevención Cardiovascular, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (I+CS), Zaragoza, Spain
d Nutrition and Genomics Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

Refers to

The Mediterranean Diet and Plasma Lipid Profile
Ramón Estruch, Miguel Camafort
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2015;68:279-81
Full text - PDF

Keywords

Mediterranean diet. Dietary pattern. Factor analysis. Diet score. Plasma lipids.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives

There is wide recognition of the importance of healthy eating in cardiovascular health promotion. The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns among a Spanish population, and to determine their relationship with plasma lipid profiles.

Methods

A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data from 1290 participants of the Aragon Workers Health Study cohort. Standardized protocols were used to collect clinical and biochemistry data. Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, quantifying habitual intake over the past 12 months. The main dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The association between adherence to dietary patterns and plasma lipid levels was assessed by linear and logistic regression.

Results

Two dietary patterns were identified: a Mediterranean dietary pattern, high in vegetables, fruits, fish, white meat, nuts, and olive oil, and a Western dietary pattern, high in red meat, fast food, dairy, and cereals. Compared with the participants in the lowest quintile of adherence to the Western dietary pattern, those in the highest quintile had 4.6 mg/dL lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < .001), 8 mg/dL lower apolipoprotein A1 levels (P = .005) and a greater risk of having decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio = 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-7.5; P-trend = .03). Participants adhering to the Mediterranean dietary pattern had 3.3 mg/dL higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < .001), and a ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol that was 0.43 times lower (P = .043).

Conclusions

Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with improved lipid profile compared with a Western dietary pattern, which was associated with a lower odds of optimal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in this population.

1885-5857/© 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved

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