Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2016;69:247-55 - Vol. 69 Num.03 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2015.08.018

Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity

Cristina Enjuanes a,b,c,, Jordi Bruguera a,b, María Grau d, Mercé Cladellas b,c, Gina Gonzalez a, Oona Meroño b, Pedro Moliner-Borja a,b, José M. Verdú b,e, Nuria Farré a,b, Josep Comín-Colet a,b,c

a Programa de Insuficiencia Cardiaca, Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
b Grupo de Investigación Biomédica en Enfermedades del Corazón, IMIM (Instituto Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas), Barcelona, Spain
c Departmento de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
d Grupo de Epidemiología y Genética Cardiovascular, IMIM (Instituto Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas), Barcelona, Spain
e Instituto de Investigación en Atención Primaria Jordi Gol, Instituto Catalán de la Salud, Barcelona, Spain

Refers to

Iron and Exercise in Heart Failure: How to Assess Relevant Changes?
Nicole Ebner, Stephan von Haehling
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2016;69:237-8
Full text - PDF

Keywords

Iron deficiency. Heart failure. Soluble transferrin receptor. Submaximal exercise capacity. 6-minute walk test.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives

To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure.

Methods

We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured.

Results

A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P = .002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P = .028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P = .03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis.

Conclusions

In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation.

1885-5857/© 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved

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