Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2015;68:672-9 - Vol. 68 Num.08 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2014.08.015

Leptin Reference Values and Cutoffs for Identifying Cardiometabolic Abnormalities in the Spanish Population

Teresa Gijón-Conde a,b,, Auxiliadora Graciani b, Pilar Guallar-Castillón b, M. Teresa Aguilera c, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo b, José R. Banegas b

a Centro de Salud Universitario Cerro del Aire, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
b Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/Idi Paz, CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain
c Departamento Médico, Sanofi-Aventis, Barcelona, Spain

Keywords

Leptin. Obesity. Cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiometabolic abnormality.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives

Estimate leptin reference values and calculate leptinemia cutoff values for identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities in Spain.

Methods

Cross-sectional study carried out between 2008 and 2010 in 11 540 individuals representing the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. Data were obtained by standardized physical examination and analyses were performed at a central laboratory. Leptinemia was measured using ELISA. Cardiometabolic abnormality was defined as the presence of at least two of the following: high blood pressure, high triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high insulin resistance values, and elevated C-reactive protein and glucose.

Results

Leptin values were higher in women than men (geometric mean, 21.9 and 6.6 ng/mL; P < .001). The median [interquartile range] was 24.5 [14.1-37.0] ng/mL in women, and 7.2 [3.3-14.3] ng/mL in men. In the multivariate analysis, leptin was significantly associated with anthropometric measures, insulin, and C-reactive protein, and inversely associated with age, smoking, and physical activity in women (r2 = 0.53; P < .001) and in men (r2 = 0.61; P < .001). The leptin values that identified cardiometabolic abnormality were 23.75 ng/mL in women (area under the curve, 0.722; sensitivity, 72.3%; specificity, 58.7%) and 6.45 ng/mL in men (area under the curve, 0.716; sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 60.2%).

Conclusions

These results facilitate the interpretation of leptin values in clinical and population studies. Leptin has moderate sensitivity and specificity for identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities.

1885-5857/© 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved

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