Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2012;65:551-8 - Vol. 65 Num.06 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2012.03.001

Magnitude and Management of Hypercholesterolemia in the Adult Population of Spain, 2008-2010, The ENRICA Study

Pilar Guallar-Castillón a,b,, Miriam Gil-Montero a,c, Luz M. León-Muñoz a,b, Auxiliadora Graciani a,b, Ana Bayán-Bravo a, José M. Taboada d, José R. Banegas a,b, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo a,b

a Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain
b CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain
c Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
d Departamento Médico, Sanofi-Aventis, Barcelona, Spain

Keywords

Hypercholesterolemia. Hyperlipoproteinemia. Low density lipoproteins. High density lipoproteins. Epidemiology. Population.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives

Only a few studies have reported nationwide population-based data on the magnitude and control of hypercholesterolemia. This work examines the prevalence and management of hypercholesterolemia in Spain.

Methods

Cross-sectional study conducted from June 2008 to October 2010 on 11 554 individuals representative of the population aged ≥18 years in Spain. Study participants provided 12-h fasting blood samples, which were analyzed in a central laboratory with standardized methods.

Results

In the whole population, 50.5% had hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥200mg/dL or drug treatment) and 44.9% high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (≥130mg/dL or drug treatment), with no substantial sex-related differences. Moreover, 25.5% of men showed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40mg/dL and 26.4% of women high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <50mg/dL. Also, 23.2% of men and 11.7% of women had triglycerides ≥150mg/dL. Frequency of dyslipidemia increased up to 65 years, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which did not vary with age. Among those with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 53.6% knew of it and 44.1% of them received lipid-lowering treatment; among the latter, 55.7% had a controlled level (13.2% of all hypercholesterolemics). Control of high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased with age and with the number of visits to the specialist physician, but was lower among diabetics (odds ratio = 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.53) and patients with cardiovascular disease (odds ratio = 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.92).

Conclusions

About half of the Spanish population has elevated serum cholesterol; moreover, cholesterol control is poor, particularly among those with highest cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics or patients with cardiovascular disease.

1885-5857/© 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved

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