Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2014;67:367-73 - Vol. 67 Num.05 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2013.08.014

Magnitude and Management of Metabolic Syndrome in Spain in 2008-2010: The ENRICA Study

Pilar Guallar-Castillón a, Raúl Francisco Pérez a, Esther López García a, Luz M. León-Muñoz a, M. Teresa Aguilera b, Auxiliadora Graciani a, Juan Luis Gutiérrez-Fisac a, José R. Banegas a, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo a,

a Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/IdiPaz, CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain
b Departamento Médico, Sanofi-Aventis, Barcelona, Spain

Keywords

Metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular disease. Diabetes mellitus. Hypertension. Abdominal obesity.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives

Few studies in Spain have reported the distribution of metabolic syndrome using the harmonized definition and that of premorbid metabolic syndrome, which consists of metabolic syndrome without diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Moreover, their regional distributions and clinical management are unknown. The present study examined the distributions and clinical management of both syndromes in Spain.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was performed from 2008 to 2010 in 11 149 representative individuals of the Spanish population aged 18 years or older. Data were obtained through standardized physical examination, and analytical measurements were done in a central laboratory.

Results

The prevalences (95% confidence interval) of metabolic syndrome and premorbid metabolic syndrome were 22.7% (21.7%-23.7%) and 16.9% (16.0%-17.8%), respectively. The frequency of both syndromes increased with age and was higher in men than in women up to 65 years; above this age, the frequency was higher in women. The communities of the south of Spain and the Balearic and Canary islands had the highest prevalence of both syndromes, in some regions reaching double that of the community with the lowest prevalence. About one third of patients with premorbid metabolic syndrome reported that they had not received health recommendations to improve their lifestyles; of those that did receive advice, adherence was low, particularly for reducing weight (31.9%) and salt intake (38.3%).

Conclusions

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high in Spain and considerable geographical differences exist in its distribution. There is substantial room for improvement in the clinical management of premorbid metabolic syndrome.

1885-5857/© 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved

Cookies
x
To improve our services and products, we use cookies (own or third parties authorized) to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior. Continuing navigation will be considered as acceptance of this use. You can change the settings or obtain more information by clicking here.
Cookies policy
x
To improve our services and products, we use cookies (own or third parties authorized) to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior. Continuing navigation will be considered as acceptance of this use. You can change the settings or obtain more information by clicking here.