Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition) Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)
Rev Esp Cardiol. 2013;66:39-46 - Vol. 66 Num.01 DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2012.07.008

The Diabetic Immigrant: Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Control. Contributions of the IDIME Study

Josep Franch-Nadal a,b,, M. Carmen Martínez-Sierra a, Albert Espelt c, Enric Sagarra-Busquets d, Flor Patitucci-Gómez a, Albert Goday-Arno d,e

a Institut Català de la Salut, EAP Raval Sud, Barcelona, Spain
b IDIAP-USR Barcelona ciutat, Barcelona, Spain
c Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Departament de Psicobiologia i Metodolologia de les Ciències de la Salut, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain
d Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
e Departament de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Keywords

Diabetes mellitus. Immigration. Metabolic control. Complications. Cardiovascular risk factors.

Abstract

Introduction and objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of diabetes and associated cardiovascular risk factors in immigrants with diabetes in Spain.

Methods

A multicenter, observational, cross-sectional study including a cohort of 605 diabetic immigrants and 307 native diabetics was conducted in patients diagnosed with diabetes and treated in primary and specialized care in Spain. A consecutive sampling method was followed. We studied epidemiological, clinical and laboratory variables related to diabetes and the presence of classical risk factors.

Results

The immigrant diabetic patient was younger (50.4 [11.5] vs 62.7 [13] years) and had fewer years of diabetes progression (5.8 [6.4] vs 10.5 [8.3] years) (P<.001) compared with native diabetic patients. Immigrants from South America with diabetes were more obese. No statistically significant differences were found in abdominal obesity or the waist/height ratio. Glycemic control was worse in immigrants than in the native Spaniards group (glycosylated hemoglobin, 7.8 [2.2] vs 7.1 [1.5%]), especially among South Asians (8.1[2.5%]) (P<.001), in whom insulin use was lower (12.8% vs 30.7% in other immigrants) (P<.001). However, the prevalence of chronic complications of diabetes was lower among immigrants, particularly that of macrovascular complications (7.7% vs 24.4%) (P<.01).

Conclusions

In our study the profile of immigrant diabetics in Spain is one of a young diabetic without complications, but with worse metabolic control. These findings provide an excellent opportunity to implement preventive measures.

1885-5857/© 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved

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