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Vol. 5. Núm. D.
Síndrome metabólico: Retos y esperanzas
Páginas 3D-10D (Octubre 2005)
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Vol. 5. Núm. D.
Síndrome metabólico: Retos y esperanzas
Páginas 3D-10D (Octubre 2005)
Síndrome metabólico: retos y esperanzas
Acceso a texto completo
Síndrome metabólico. Concepto y fisiopatología
Metabolic Syndrome. Characteristics and Pathophysiology
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...
Martín Laclaustra Gimeno, Clara Bergua Martínez, Isaac Pascual Calleja, José A. Casasnovas Lenguas??
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jacasas@unizar.es

Correspondencia: Dr. J.A. Casasnovas Lenguas. Paseo María Agustín, 4-6, casa 4, 10 C. 50004 Zaragoza. España.
Grupo de Investigación Cardiovascular. Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud. Zaragoza. España
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Estadísticas

En la fisiopatología del síndrome metabólico (SM) se imbrican alteraciones en el metabolismo glucolipídico, estados proinflamatorios y protrombóticos.

El vínculo entre todas ellas se atribuye a la resistencia insulínica (RI), favorecida por el aumento de ácidos grasos libres, muchas veces relacionado con el sobrepeso. Este estado provoca trastornos en la utilización de glucosa celular, así como desregulación de su producción hepática.

El metabolismo lipídico presenta también las consecuencias de la RI, que desembocan en las alteraciones características del SM: hipertrigliceridemia e hipocolesterolemia HDL.

La hipertensión se relaciona con diferentes mecanismos como consecuencia de alteraciones en la vía de la insulina y en la regulación del sistema nervioso vegetativo.

Además de las repercusiones en el desarrollo de la aterosclerosis, últimamente se han relacionado el SM y la RI con otras enfermedades, como el hígado graso no alcohólico y el síndrome del ovario poliquístico.

Palabras clave:
Resistencia insulínica
Fisiopatología
Síndrome metabólico

The pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome involves altered glucose and lipid metabolism, and proinflammatory and prothrombotic states. All of these abnormalities appear to be linked to insulin resistance, which is associated with an increase in the free fatty acid level, usually due to obesity. This condition disturbs cellular glucose management and hepatic synthesis. In addition, lipid metabolism is also impaired by insulin resistance. In these circumstances, hypertriglyceridemia and HDL hypocholesterolemia both develop. Moreover, hypertension is related to altered insulin regulation and impaired autonomic nervous system activity. In addition to the well-demonstrated relationship with atherosclerosis, recently metabolic syndrome has also been associated with steatohepatitis and polycystic ovary syndrome.

Key words:
Insulin resistance
Pathophysiology
Metabolic syndrome
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