Publish in this journal
Journal Information
Vol. 58. Issue 1.
Pages 65-90 (January 2005)
Share
Share
More article options
Vol. 58. Issue 1.
Pages 65-90 (January 2005)
Full text access
Expert Consensus Document on β-Adrenergic Receptor Blockers
Documento de Consenso de Expertos sobre bloqueadores de los receptores β-adrenérgicos
Visits
8746
José López-Sendóna, Karl Swedberga, John McMurraya, Juan Tamargoa, Aldo P Maggionia, Henry Dargiea, Michal Tenderaa, Finn Waagsteina, Jan Kjekshusa, Philippe Lechata, Christian Torp-Pedersena
a The Task Force on Beta-Blockers of the European Society of Cardiology
This item has received
8746
Visits
Article information
Full Text
Bibliography
Statistics
Full Text

The English version of this article has been published in Eur Heart Journal 2004;25:1341-62

Bibliography
[1]
Beta-adrenoceptors. En: Cruickshank JM, Prichard BNC, editors. Beta-blockers in clinical practice. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. p. 9-86.
[2]
Optimisation of ??-blockers pharmacology. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1990;16 Suppl. 5:S8-10.
[3]
Frishman WH, Lazar EJ, Gorodokin G..
Pharmacokinetic optimisation of therapy with beta-adrenergic-blocking agents..
Clin Pharmacokinet, 20 (1991), pp. 311-8
[4]
Frishman WH..
Carvedilol..
N Engl J Med, 339 (1998), pp. 1759-65
[5]
Benfield P, Sorkin EM..
Esmolol. A preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy..
Drugs, 33 (1987), pp. 392-412
[6]
Bristow MR..
Pathophysiologic and pharmacologic rationale for clinical management of chronic heart failure with beta-blocking agents..
Am J Cardiol, 71 (1993), pp. C12-22
[7]
Bouzamondo A, Hulot JS, Sánchez P, et al..
Beta-blocker treatment in heart failure..
Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 15 (2001), pp. 95-109
[8]
Waagstein F..
Beta-blockers in congestive heart failure: the evolution of a new treatment concept-mechanism of action and clinical implications..
J Clin Basic Cardiol, 5 (2002), pp. 215-23
[9]
The effect of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on total peripheral resistance. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1986;8 Suppl. 4:S49-60.
[10]
Multifactorial actions of beta-adrenergic-blocking drugs in ischemic heart disease: current concepts. Circulation. 1983;67 Suppl. I:I11-8.
[11]
Opie LH..
Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on biochemical and metabolic response to exercise..
Am J Cardiol, 55 (1985), pp. D95
[12]
Kukin ML, Kalman J, Charney R, et al..
Prospective, randomized comparison of effect of long-term treatment with metoprolol or carvedilol on symptoms, exercise, ejection fraction, and oxidative stress in heart failure..
Circulation, 102 (1999), pp. 2646-51
[13]
Cleland JG, Dargie HJ..
Arrhythmias, catecholamines and electrolytes..
Am J Coll Cardiol, 62 (1988), pp. 55-9
[14]
Shizukuda Y, Buttrick PM, Geenen D, et al..
Beta-adrenergic stimulation causes cardiocyte apoptosis: influence of tachycardia and hypertrophy..
Am J Physiol, 275 (1998), pp. 961-8
[15]
Lowes BD, Gilbert EM, Abraham WT, et al..
Myocardial gene expression in dilated cardiomyopathy treated with beta-blocking agents..
N Engl J Med, 346 (2002), pp. 1357-65
[16]
Hjalmarson A, Elmfeldt D, Herlitz J, et al..
Effect on mortality of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. A double-blind randomised trial..
Lancet, ii (1981), pp. 823-87
[17]
Hjalmarson A, Goldstein S, Fagerberg B, et al..
for the MERIT-HF Study Group: Effects of controlled-release metoprolol on total mortality, hospitalizations, and well-being in patients with heart failure. The metoprolol CR/Xl randomized intervention trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT-HF)..
JAMA, 283 (2000), pp. 1293-302
[18]
Thadani U, Whitsett TL..
Beta-adrenergic-blockers and intermittent claudication: time for reappraisal..
Arch Int Med, 151 (1991), pp. 1705-7
[19]
Radack K, Deck C..
ß-adrenergic blocker therapy does not worsen intermitent claudication in subjects with peripheral arterial disease. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials..
Arch Int Med, 151 (1991), pp. 1769-76
[20]
Kjekshus J, Gilpin E, Gali G, et al..
Diabetic patients and beta blockers after acute myocardial infarction..
Eur Heart J, 11 (1990), pp. 43-50
[21]
Gottlieb S, McCarter R, Vogel R..
Effect of beta-blockade on mortality among high risk patients after myocardial infarction..
N Engl J Med, 338 (1998), pp. 489-97
[22]
COMET study. European Congress of Cardiology. Vienna, September 2003.
[23]
Chen J, Radford MJ, Wang Y, et al..
Effectiveness of beta-blocker therapy after acute myocardial infarction in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 37 (2001), pp. 1950-6
[24]
Salem S, McDevitt D..
Central effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists..
Clin Pharmacol Ther, 33 (1983), pp. 52-7
[25]
Houston MC, Hodge R..
Beta-adrenergic blocker withdrawal syndromes in hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases..
Am Heart J, 116 (1988), pp. 515-23
[26]
Psaty BM, Koepsell TD, Wagner EH, et al..
The relative risk of incident coronary heart disease associated with recently stopping the use of beta-blockers..
JAMA, 263 (1990), pp. 1653-7
[27]
Salpeter SR, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE, et al..
Cardioselective betablockers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis..
Respir Med, 97 (2003), pp. 1094-101
[28]
Andrus MR, Holloway KP, Clark DB..
Use of beta-blockers in patients with COPD..
Ann Pharmacother, 38 (2004), pp. 142-5
[29]
Heintzen MP, Strauer BE..
Peripheral vascular effects of betablockers..
Eur Heart J, 15 (1994), pp. 2-7
[30]
Gheorghiade M, Goldstein S..
Blockers in the post-myocardial infarction patient..
Circulation, 106 (2002), pp. 394-8
[31]
Haas SJ, Vos T, Gilbert RE, et al..
Are beta-blockers as eficacious in patients with diabetes mellitus as in patients without diabetes mellitus who have chronic heart failure? A meta-analysis of largescale clinical trials..
Am Heart J, 146 (2003), pp. 848-53
[32]
Blaufarb I, Pfeifer TM, Frishman WH..
Beta-blockers: drug interactions of clinical significance..
Drug Safety, 13 (1995), pp. 359-70
[33]
Van de Werf F, et al, for the task force of the management of acute myocardial infarction of the European Society of Car..
Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation..
Eur Heart J, 24 (2003), pp. 28-66
[34]
Guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction American College of Cardiology [consultado 9/99]. Disponible en: www.acc.org
[35]
Priori SG, Aliot E, Blomström-Lundqvist C, et al..
for the Task Force on Sudden Cardiac Death of the European Society of Cardiology..
Eur Heart J, 22 (2001), pp. 1374-450
[36]
Apex cardiogram and systolic time intervals in acute myocardial infarction and effect of practolol. Br Heart J. 1974:1109-21.
[37]
Hjalmarson A, Elmfeldt D, Herlitz J, et al..
Effect on mortality of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. A double-blind randomised trial..
Lancet, ii (1981), pp. 823-7
[38]
Richterova A, Herlitz J, Holmberg S, et al..
The Geoteborg Metoprolol Trial in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Effects on chest pain..
Am J Cardiol, 53 (1984), pp. D32-6
[39]
Norris RM, Brown MA, Clarke ED, et al..
Prevention of ventricular fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction by intravenous propranolol..
Lancet, 2 (1984), pp. 883-6
[40]
ISIS-1 (First International Study of Infarct Survival) collaborative group..
Randomised trial of intravenous atenolol among 16027 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-1..
Lancet, II (1986), pp. 57-66
[41]
The MIAMI Trial Research Group: Metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction (MIAMI)..
Am J Cardiol, 56 (1985), pp. G1-57
[42]
Rydén L, Ariniego R, Arnman K, et al..
A double-blind trial of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. Effects on ventricular tachyarrhythmias..
N Engl J Med, 308 (1983), pp. 614-8
[43]
Primary and secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and strokes. An update of randomly allocated controlled trials. J Hypertens. 1993;11 Suppl. 4:S61-73.
[44]
Beta blockade after myocardial infarction. Systematic review and meta regression analysis. BMJ. 1999:1730-7.
[45]
Roberts R, Rogers WJ, et al..
Immediate versus deferred betablockade following thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (TIMI) IIB study..
Circulation, 83 (1991), pp. 422-37
[46]
Van de Werf F, Janssens L, Brzostek T, et al..
Short term effect of early intravenous treatment with beta-adrenergic blocking agents or a specific bradycardia agent in patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving thrombolytic therapy..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 22 (1993), pp. 407-16
[47]
Barron HV, Rundle AC, Gore JM, et al, for the participants in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction-2..
Intracranial hemorrhage rates and effect of immediate beta-blocker use in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with tissue plasminogen activator..
Am J Cardiol, 85 (2000), pp. 294-8
[48]
Pfisterer M, Cox JL, Granger CG, et al..
Atenolol use and clinical outcomes after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. The GUSTO-I experience. Global utilization of streptokinase and TPA (alteplase) for occluded coronary arteries..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 32 (1998), pp. 634-40
[49]
Harjai KJ, Stone GW, Boura J, et al..
Effects of prior beta-blocker therapy on clinical outcomes after primary coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction..
Am J Cardiol, 91 (2003), pp. 655-60
[50]
The survival benefit of periprocedural beta-blockers in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty is determined by use of these drugs before admission. Am J Cardiol. 2003;92 Suppl. L:L228.
[51]
Does beta-bloquer therapy improb?? clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction after successful primary angioplasty? A pooled analisis from the primary angioplasti in myocardial infarction-2 (PAMI-2). No surgery on-site (noSOS), stetn PAMI and Air PAMI trials. Circulation. 2003;108 Suppl. IV:416
[52]
Wood D, De Backer G, Faergeman O, et al, for the Second Joint Task Force of European and other Societiesy on Coronary Pr..
Prevention of coronary heart disease in clinical practice..
Eur Heart J, 19 (1998), pp. 1434-503
[53]
Gibbons RJ, Chatterjeee K, Daley J, et al, for the task force on practice guideline.s, ACC/AHA/ACP-ASIM..
Guidelines for the management of patients with chronic stable angina..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 33 (1999), pp. 2092-197
[54]
Eagle KA, Berger PB, Calkins H, et al, for the task force..
ACC/AHA guideline update on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation for noncardiac surgery. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines..
Circulation, 105 (2002), pp. 1257-67
[55]
Disponible en: http://www.acc.org
[56]
Grundy SM, Ivor J, Benjamin IJ, et al..
Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association..
Circulation, 100 (1999), pp. 1134-46
[57]
Smith SC, Blair SN, Bonow RO, et al..
AHA/ACC Guidelines for preventing heart attack and death in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: 2001 update. A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology..
Circulation, 104 (2001), pp. 1577-9
[58]
De Backer G, Ambrosioni E, Borch-Johnsen K, et al, for the Third Join Task Force of the European and other Societies on..
European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice..
Eur Heart J, 24 (2003), pp. 1601-10
[59]
Soumerai SB, McLaughlin TJ, Spiegelman D, et al..
Adverse outcomes of underuse of beta-blockers in elderly survivors of acute myocardial infarction..
JAMA, 277 (1997), pp. 115-21
[60]
A prospective survey of the characteristic.s, treatments and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes in Europe..
Eur Heart J, 23 (2002), pp. 1190-201
[61]
The beta-blocker heart attack study group..
The beta-blocker heart attack trial..
JAMA, 246 (1981), pp. 2073-4
[62]
Timolol-induced reduction in mortality and reinfarction in patients surviving acute myocardial infarction..
N Engl J Med, 304 (1981), pp. 801-7
[63]
Pedersen TR..
Six-year follow-up of the Norwegian Multicenter Study on Timolol after Acute Myocardial Infarction..
N Engl J Med, 313 (1985), pp. 1055-8
[64]
Hjalmarson A, Elmfeldt D, Herlitz J, et al..
Effect on mortality of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction: a double-blind randomised trial..
Lancet, 2 (1981), pp. 823-7
[65]
Boissel JP, Leizorovicz A, Picolet H, et al..
Secondary prevention after high-risk acute myocardial infarction with low dose acebutolol..
Am J Cardiol, 66 (1990), pp. 251-60
[66]
The CAPRICORN investigators..
Effect of carvedilol on outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. The CAPRICORN randomised trial..
Lancet, 357 (2001), pp. 1385-90
[67]
The beta-blocker pooling project research group..
The beta-blocker pooling project. Subgroup findings from randomized trials in postinfarction patients..
Eur Heart J, 9 (1988), pp. 8-16
[68]
Hedblad J, Wikstrand L, Janzon H, et al..
Low-dose metoprolol CR/XL and fluvastatin slow progression of carotid intima-media thickness: main results from the beta-blocker cholesterol-lowering asymptomatic plaque study (BCAPS)..
Circulation, 103 (2001), pp. 1721-6
[69]
Malmberg K..
Prospective randomised study of intensive insulin treatment on long term survival after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus. DIGAMI study group..
BMJ, 314 (1997), pp. 1512-5
[70]
Bertrand ME, Simoons ML, Fox KA.A, et al..
for the task force of the European Society of Cardiology. Management of acute coronary syndromes: acute coronary syndromes without persistent ST-segment elevation..
Eur Heart J, 21 (2000), pp. 1406-32
[71]
Bertrand ME, Simoons ML, Fox KA.A, et al..
for the task force on the management of acute coronary syndromes of the European Society of Cardiology. Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation..
Eur Heart J, 23 (2002), pp. 1809-40
[72]
American Heart Association; 2002. Disponible en: www.americanheart.org
[73]
Gottlieb S, Weisfeldt ML, Ouyang P, et al..
Effect of the addition of propranolol to therapy with nifedipine for unstable angina pectoris: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial..
[74]
Telford A, Wilson C..
Trial of heparin versus atenolol in prevention of myocardial infarction in intermediate coronary syndrome..
Lancet, 1 (1981), pp. 1225-8
[75]
L ubsen JTJ..
Efficacy of nifedipine and metoprolol in the early treatment of unstable angina in the coronary care unit: findings from the Holland Interuniversity Nifedipine/metoprolol Trial (HINT)..
Am J Cardiol, 60 (1987), pp. A18-25
[76]
Yusuf S, Witte J, Friedman L..
Overview of results of randomized trials in heart disease: unstable angina, heart failure, primary prevention with aspirin and risk factor modifications..
JAMA, 260 (1988), pp. 2259-63
[77]
Ellis K, Tcheng JE, Sapp S, et al..
Mortality benefit of beta blockade in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing coronary intervention: pooled results from the Epic, Epilog, Epistent, Capture and Rapport Trials..
J Interv Cardiol, 16 (2003), pp. 299-305
[78]
Tilmant PY, Lablanche JM, Thieuleux FA, et al..
Detrimental effect of propranolol in patients with coronary arterial spasm countered by combination with diltiazem..
Am J Cardiol, 52 (1983), pp. 230-3
[79]
Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology..
Management of stable angina pectoris..
Eur Heart J, 18 (1997), pp. 394-413
[80]
Wang TJ, Stafford RS..
National patterns and predictors of betablocker use in patients with coronary artery disease..
Arch Int Med, 158 (1998), pp. 1901-6
[81]
Rydén L..
Efficacy of epanolol versus metoprolol in angina pectoris: report from a Swedish multicentre study of exercise tolerance..
J Int Med, 231 (1992), pp. 7-11
[82]
Boberg J, Larsen FF, Pehrsson SK..
The effects of beta blockade with (epanolol) and without (atenolol) intrinsic sympathomimetic activity in stable angina pectoris. The Visacor Study Group..
Clin Cardiol, 15 (1992), pp. 591-5
[83]
Frishman WH, Heiman M, Soberman J, et al..
Comparison of celiprolol and propranolol in stable angina pectoris. Celiprolol International Angina Study Group..
Am J Cardiol, 67 (1991), pp. 665-70
[84]
Arrhythmias. En: Cruickshank JM, Prichard BNC, editors. Beta-blockers in clinical practice. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. p. 631-704.
[85]
Gruppo italiano per lo studio della sopravvivenza nell-infarto miocardico..
GISSI-3: effects of lisinopril and transdermal glyceryl trinitrate singly and together on 6-week mortality and ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction..
Lancet, 343 (1994), pp. 1115-22
[86]
Prida XE, Hill JA, Feldman RL..
Systemic and coronary hemodynamic effects of combined alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade (labetalol) in normotensive patients with stable angina pectoris and positive exercise stress test responses..
Am J Cardiol, 59 (1987), pp. 1084-8
[87]
Celiprolol in the treatment of exercise induced angina pectoris. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1986;8 Suppl. 4:S135-7.
[88]
Mulcahy D, Cunningham D, Crean P, et al..
Circadian variations of total ischemic burden and its alterations with anti-anginal agents..
Lancet, i (1988), pp. 755-88
[89]
Hauf-Zachariou U, Blackwood RA, Gunawardena KA, et al..
Carvedilol versus verapamil in chronic stable angina: a multicentre trial..
Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 52 (1997), pp. 95-100
[90]
McLenachan JM, Findlay IN, Wilson JT, et al..
Twenty-four hour betablockade in stable angina pectoris: a study of atenolol and betaxolol..
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 20 (1992), pp. 311-5
[91]
Pepine CJ, Cohn PF, Deedwania PC, et al..
Effects of treatment on outcome in mildly symptomatic patients with ischemia during daily life. The Atenolol Silent Ischemia Study (ASIST)..
Circulation, 90 (1994), pp. 762-8
[92]
Wallace WA, Wellington KL, Chess MA, et al..
Comparison of nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system and atenolol on antianginal efficacies and exercise hemodynamic responses in stable angina pectoris..
Am J Cardiol, 73 (1994), pp. 23-8
[93]
De Vries RJ, Van den Heuvel AF, Lok DJ, et al..
Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system versus atenolol in stable angina pectoris. The Netherlands Working Group on Cardiovascular Research (WCN)..
Int J Cardiol, 57 (1996), pp. 143-50
[94]
Fox KM, Mulcahy D, Findlay I, et al..
The total ischaemic burden european trial (TIBET). Effects of atenolol, nifedipine SR and their combination on the exercise test and the total ischaemic burden in 608 patients with stable angina. The TIBET Group..
Eur Heart J, 17 (1996), pp. 96-103
[95]
Van de Ven LL, Vermeulen A, Tans JG, et al..
Which drug to choose for stable angina pectoris: a comparative study between bisoprolol and nitrates..
Int J Cardiol, 47 (1995), pp. 217-23
[96]
Isosorbide-5-mononitrate and atenolol in the treatment of stable exertional angina. Cardiology. 1991;79 Suppl. 2:19-26.
[97]
Kawanishi DT, Reid CL, Morrison EC, et al..
Response of angina and ischemia to long-term treatment in patients with chronic stable angina: a double-blind randomized individualized dosing trial of nifedipine, propranolol and their combination..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 19 (1992), pp. 409-17
[98]
Meyer TE, Adanms C, Commerford P..
Comparison of the efficacy of atenolol and its combination with slow-release nifedipine in chronic stable angina..
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, 7 (1993), pp. 909-13
[99]
Steffensen R, Grande P, Pedersen F, et al..
Effects of atenolol and diltiazem on exercise tolerance and ambulatory ischaemia..
Int J Cardiol, 40 (1993), pp. 143-53
[100]
Parameshwar J, Keegan J, Mulcahy D, et al..
Atenolol or nicardipine alone is as efficacious in stable angina as their combination: a double blind randomised trial..
Int J Cardiol, 40 (1993), pp. 135-41
[101]
Foale RA..
Atenolol versus the fixed combination of atenolol and nifedipine in stable angina pectoris..
Eur Heart J, 14 (1993), pp. 1369-74
[102]
Rouleau JL, Talajic M, Sussex B, et al..
Myocardial infarction patients in the 1990s: their risk factors, stratification and survival in Canada. The Canadian assessment of myocardial infarction (CAMI) Study..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 27 (1996), pp. 1119-27
[103]
Egstrup K..
Transient myocardial ischemia after abrupt withdrawal of antianginal therapy in chronic stable angina..
Am J Cardiol, 61 (1988), pp. 1219-22
[104]
Dargie HJ, Ford I, Fox KM..
Total ischaemic burden european trial (TIBET). Effects of ischaemia and treatment with atenolol, nifedipine SR and their combination on outcome in patients with chronic stable angina. The TIBET Study Group..
Eur Heart J, 17 (1996), pp. 104-12
[105]
Treatment of stable angina pectoris with calcium antagonists and beta-blockers. The APSIS study. Angina prognosis study in Stockholm. Cardiologia. 1995;40 Suppl. 1:301.
[106]
Von Arnim T..
Medical treatment to reduce total ischemic burden: total ischemic burden bisoprolol study (TIBBS), a multicenter trial comparing bisoprolol and nifedipine. The TIBBS Investigators..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 25 (1995), pp. 231-8
[107]
Savonitto S, Ardissiono D, Egstrup K, et al..
Combination therapy with metoprolol and nifedipine versus monotherapy in patients with stable angina pectoris. Results of the international multicenter angina exercise (IMAGE) study..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 27 (1996), pp. 311-6
[108]
Remme WJ, Swedberg K, et al, for the task force for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failur.e, European Socie..
Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure..
Eur Heart J, 22 (2001), pp. 1527-60
[109]
Komajda M, Follath F, Swedberg K, et al, for the study group of diagnosis of the working group on heart failure of the E..
The Euro heart failure survey programme: a survey on the quality of care among patients with heart failure in Europe. Part 2: treatment..
Eur Heart J, 24 (2003), pp. 464-74
[110]
Waagstein F, Hjalmarson AA, Varnauskas E, et al..
Effect of chronic beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in congestive cardiomyopathy..
Br Heart J, 37 (1975), pp. 1022-36
[111]
Swedberg K, Hjalmarson A, Waagstein F, et al..
Beneficial effects of long-term beta-blockade in congestive cardiomyopathy..
Br Heart J, 44 (1980), pp. 117-33
[112]
Anderson J, Lutz JR, Gilbert EM, et al..
A randomized trial of low-dose betablockade therapy for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy..
Am J Cardiol, 55 (1985), pp. 471-5
[113]
Engelmeier RS, O'Connell JB, Walsh R, et al..
Improvement in symptoms and exercise tolerance by metoprolol in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial..
Circulation, 72 (1985), pp. 536-46
[114]
Waagstein F, Bristow MR, Swedberg K, et al, for the MDC Trial Study Group..
Beneficial effects of metoprolol in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy..
Lancet, 342 (1993), pp. 1441-6
[115]
CIBIS investigators and committees..
A randomized trial of betablockade in heart failure. The cardiac insufficiency bisoprolol study (CIBIS)..
Circulation, 90 (1994), pp. 1765-73
[116]
Packer M, Bristow MR, Cohn JN, et al..
The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group..
N Engl J Med, 334 (1996), pp. 1349-55
[117]
Colucci WS, Packer M, Bristow MR, et al, for the US carvedilol heart failure study group..
Carvedilol inhibits clinical progression in patients with mild symptoms of heart failure..
Circulation, 94 (1996), pp. 2800-6
[118]
Bristow MR, Gilbert EM, Abraham WT, et al, for the MOCHA Investigators..
Carvedilol produces dose-related improvements in left ventricular function and survival in subjects with chronic heart failure..
Circulation, 94 (1996), pp. 2807-16
[119]
Australia/New Zealand heart failure research collaborative group..
Randomised, placebo-controlled trial of carvedilol in patients with congestive heart failure due to ischaemic heart disease..
Lancet, 349 (1997), pp. 375-80
[120]
Lechat P, Packer M, Chalon S, et al..
Clinical effects of betaadrenergic blockade in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials..
Circulation, 98 (1998), pp. 1184-91
[121]
CIBIS-II investigators and committees..
The cardiac insufficiency bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial..
Lancet, 353 (1999), pp. 9-13
[122]
MERIT-HF study group..
Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure. Metoprolol CR/XL randomised intervention trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT-HF)..
Lancet, 353 (1999), pp. 2001-7
[123]
The RESOLVD Investigators..
Effects of metoprolol CR in patients with ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy..
Circulation, 101 (2000), pp. 378-84
[124]
Packer M, Coats AJ.S, Fowler MB, et al, for the carvedilol prospective randomized cumulative survival study group..
Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure..
N Engl J Med, 344 (2001), pp. 1651-8
[125]
Doughty RN, Whalley GA, Gamble G, et al, on behalf of the Australia-New Zealand Heart Failure Research Collaborative Gro..
Left ventricular remodeling with carvedilol in patients with congestive heart failure due to ischemic heart disease..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 29 (1997), pp. 1060-6
[126]
Shekelle PG, Rich MW, Morton SC, et al..
Eficacy of angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers in the management of left ventricular systolic dysfunction according to race, gender, and diabetic status. A meta-analysis of major clinical trials..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 41 (2003), pp. 1529-38
[127]
Metra M, Giubbini R, Nodari S, et al..
Differential effects of betablockers in patients with heart failure: a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of the long-term effects of metoprolol versus carvedilol..
Circulation, 102 (2000), pp. 546-51
[128]
Bolger AP, Al-Nasser F..
Beta-blockers for chronic heart failure: surviving longer but feeling better..
Int J Cardiol, 92 (2003), pp. 1-8
[129]
Goldstein S, Fagerberg B, Hjalmarson A, et al..
Metoprolol controlled release/extended release in patients with severe heart failure: analysis of the experience in the MERIT-HF study..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 38 (2001), pp. 932-8
[130]
The beta-blocker evaluation of survival trial investigators..
A trial of the beta-blocker bucindolol in patients with advanced chronic heart failure..
N Engl J Med, 344 (2001), pp. 1659-67
[131]
Torp-Pedersen C, Køber L, Ball S, et al..
The incomplete bucindolol evaluation in acute myocardial infarction trial (BEAT)..
Eur J Heart Fail, 4 (2002), pp. 495
[132]
Poole-Wilson PA, Swedberg K, Cleland JC.F, et al, for the COMET investigators Comparison of carvedilol and metoprolol on..
[133]
MacMurray J, Cohen-Solal A, Dietz R, et al..
Practical recommendations for the use of ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers and spironolactone in heart failure: putting guidelines into practice..
Eur J Heart Failure, 3 (2001), pp. 495-502
[134]
Herlitz J, Waagstein F, Lindqvist J, Swedberg K, Hjalmarson A..
Effect of metoprolol on the prognosis for patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction and indirect signs of congestive heart failure (a subgroup analysis of the Goteborg Metoprolol Trial)..
Am J Cardiol, 80 (1997), pp. J40-4
[135]
Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute heart failure. Eur Heart J (will be submitted to the European Heart Journal in 2004).
[136]
ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology committee for practice guidelines and policy conferences (committee to de
[137]
ACCC/AHA/ESC Guidelines for he management of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology committee for practice guidelines (committee to develop guideline
[138]
Turner P, Granville-Grosman KL, Smart JV..
Effect of adrenergic receptor blockade on the tachycardia of toritoxicosis and anxiety state..
Lancet, 2 (1965), pp. 1316-8
[139]
Delarue NC, Morrow JD, Kerr JH, Colapinto RF..
Phaeocromocytoma in the modern context..
Can J Surg, 21 (1978), pp. 387-94
[140]
Singh BN..
Clinical aspects of the antiarrhythmic action of betareceptor blocking drugs. Part 1. Pattern of response of common arrhythmias..
NZ Med J, 78 (1973), pp. 482-6
[141]
Clinical experience with intravenous metoprolol in supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. A multicentre study. Ann Clin Res. 1981;13 Suppl. 30:68-72.
[142]
Sweany AE, Moncloa F, Vickers FF, et al..
Antiarrhythmic effects of intravenous timolol in supraventricular arrhythmias..
Clin Pharmacol Ther, 37 (1985), pp. 124-7
[143]
McBride JW, McCoy HG, Goldenberg IF..
Supraventricular tachycardia treated with continuous infusion of propranolol..
Clin Pharmacol Ther, 44 (1988), pp. 93-9
[144]
Jordaens L, Gorgels A, Stroobandt R, et al..
Eficacy and safety of intravenous sotalol for the termination of paroximal supraventricular tachycardia..
Am J Cardiol, 68 (1991), pp. 35-40
[145]
Arrhythmias. En: Cruickshank JM, Prichard BNC, editors. Beta-blockers in clinical practice. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. p. 705-63.
[146]
Gibson DG, Sowton E..
The use of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs in dysrrhythmias..
Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 12 (1969), pp. 16-39
[147]
Klein GJ, Bashore TM, Sellers T, et al..
Ventricular fibrillation in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome..
N Engl J Med, 301 (1979), pp. 1080-5
[148]
Dreifus LS, Haiat R, Watanabe Y, et al..
Ventricular fibrillation: a possible mechanism of sudden cardiac death in patients and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome..
Circulation, 43 (1971), pp. 520-7
[149]
Prystowsky EN, Benson Jr DW, Fuster V, et al..
Management of patients with atrial brillation: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Subcommittee on Electrocardiography and Electrophysiology, American Heart Association..
Circulation, 93 (1996), pp. 1262-77
[150]
Steeds RP, Birchall AS, Smith M, et al..
An open label, randomised, crossover study comparing sotalol and atenolol in the treatment of symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation..
Heart, 82 (1999), pp. 170-5
[151]
Kuhlkamp V, Schirdewan A, Stangl K, et al..
Use of metoprolol CR/XL to maintain sinus rhythm after conversion from persistent atrial fibrillation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 36 (2000), pp. 139-46
[152]
National High Blood Pressure Education Program..
Report of the national high blood pressure education program working group on high blood pressure in pregnancy..
Am J Obstet Gynecol, 183 (2000), pp. S1-22
[153]
Platia EV, Michelson EL, Porterfeld JK, et al..
Esmolol versus verapamil in the acute treatment of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter..
Am J Cardiol, 63 (1989), pp. 925-9
[154]
Lewis RV, McMurray J, McDevitt DG..
Effects of atenolol, verapamil, and xamoterol on heart rate and exercise tolerance in digitalised patients with chronic atrial fibrillation..
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 13 (1989), pp. 1-6
[155]
Farshi R, Kistner D, Sarma JS, et al..
Ventricular rate control in chronic atrial fibrillation during daily activity and programmed exercise: a crossover open label of five drug regimens..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 33 (1999), pp. 304-10
[156]
Gulamhusein S, Ko P, Klein GJ..
Ventricular fibrillation following verapamil in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome..
Am Heart J, 106 (1983), pp. 145-7
[157]
Khand AU, Rankin AC, Martin W, et al..
Carvdilol alone or in combination with digoxin for the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 42 (2003), pp. 1944-51
[158]
Balser JR, Martinez EA, Winters BD, et al..
Beta-adrenergic blockade accelerates conversion of postoperative supraventricular tachyarrhythmias..
Anesthesiology, 89 (1998), pp. 1052-9
[159]
Plewan A, Lehmann G, Ndrepepa G, et al..
Maintenance of sinus rhythm after electrical cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation; sotalol vs bisoprolol..
Eur Heart J, 22 (2001), pp. 1504-10
[160]
Katritsis D, Panagiotakos DB, Karvouni E, et al..
Comparison of effectiveness of carvedilol versus bisoprolol for maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation..
Am J Cardiol, 92 (2003), pp. 1116-9
[161]
Singh BN, Jewitt DE..
Beta-adrenoreceptor blocking drugs in cardiac arrhythmias..
Cardiovasc Drugs, 2 (1997), pp. 119-59
[162]
Mosca L, Scott M, Grundy SM, et al..
Guide to preventive cardiology for women. AHA/ACC scientific statement..
Circulation, 99 (1999), pp. 2480-4
[163]
Priori SG, Aliot E, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, et al..
Update of the guidelines on sudden cardiac death of the European Society of Cardiology..
Eur Heart J, 24 (2003), pp. 13-5
[164]
The development and current status of coronary care. En: Textbook of coronary care. Excerpta Medica (Amsterdam). 1972:3-25.
[165]
Milner PG, Platia EV, Reid PR, et al..
Ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings at the time of fatal cardiac arrest..
Am J Cardiol, 56 (1985), pp. 588-92
[166]
Marcus FI, Cobb LA, Edwards JE, et al..
Mechanism of death and prevalence of myocardial ischemic symptoms in the terminal event after acute myocardial infarction..
Am J Cardiol, 61 (1988), pp. 8-15
[167]
Farb A, Tang AL, Burke AP, et al..
Sudden coronary death. Frequency of active coronary lesions, inactive coronary lesions, and myocardial infarction..
Circulation, 92 (1995), pp. 1701-9
[168]
Rydén L, Ariniego R, Arnman K, et al..
A double blind trial of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction..
N Engl J Med, 308 (1983), pp. 614-8
[169]
Rossi PR, Yusuf S, Ramsdale D, et al..
Reduction of ventricular arrhythmias by early intravenous atenolol in suspected acute myocardial infarction..
Br Med J, 286 (1983), pp. 506-10
[170]
Nuttal SL, Toescu V, Kendall MJ..
Beta-blockade after myocardial infarction..
BMJ, 320 (2000), pp. 581-8
[171]
Held P..
Effects of beta blockers on ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction: tolerability and survival effects..
Am J Cardiol, 71 (1993), pp. C39-44
[172]
Kendall MJ, Lynch KP, Hjalmarson A, et al..
Beta-blockers and sudden cardiac death..
Ann Int Med, 123 (1995), pp. 358-67
[173]
Maron BJ..
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy..
[174]
Spirito P, Seidman CE, McKenna WJ, et al..
The management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy..
N Engl J Med, 336 (1997), pp. 775-85
[175]
McKenna W, Deanfeld J, Faruqui A, et al..
Prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: role of age and clinical, electrocardiographic and haemodynamic features..
Am J Cardiol, 47 (1981), pp. 532-8
[176]
Maron BJ, McKenna W, Danielson GK, et al, for the American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology clinical..
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy..
Eur Heart J, 24 (2003), pp. 1965-91
[177]
Desseigne P, Tabib A, Loire R..
Myocardial bridging on the left anterior descending coronary artery and sudden cardiac death. Apropos of 19 cases with autopsy..
Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss, 84 (1991), pp. 511-6
[178]
Schwarz ER, Klues HG, Vom DJ, et al..
Functional, angiographic and intracoronary Doppler flow characteristics in symptomatic patients with myocardial bridging: effect of short-term intravenous betablocker medication..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 27 (1996), pp. 1637-45
[179]
The long QT syndrome. En: Zipes DP, Jalife J, editors. Cardiac electrophysiology from cell to bedside. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2000. p. 597-615.
[180]
Moss AJ, Schwartz PJ, Crampton RS, et al..
The long QT syndrome. Prospective longitudinal study of 328 families..
Circulation, 84 (1991), pp. 1136-44
[181]
Schwartz PJ, Priori SG, Spazzolini C, et al..
Genotype phenotype correlation in the long-QT syndrome: gene specific triggers for lifethreatening arrhythmias..
Circulation (online), 103 (2001), pp. 89-95
[182]
Coumel P, Fidelle J, Lucet V, et al..
Catecholaminergic-induced severe ventricular arrhythmias with Adams-Stokes syndrome in children: report of four cases..
Br Heart J, 40 (1978), pp. 28-37
[183]
Leenhardt A, Lucet V, Denjoy I, et al..
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in children. A 7-year follow-up of 21 patients..
Circulation, 91 (1995), pp. 1512-9
[184]
Myerburg RJ, Kessler KM, Zama.n, et al..
Survivors of prehospital cardiac arrest..
JAMA, 247 (1982), pp. 1485-90
[185]
Priori SG, Crotti L..
Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation..
Cardiac Electrophysiol Rev, 3 (1999), pp. 198-201
[186]
Brugada P, Brugada J..
Right bundle branch block, persistent ST segment elevation and sudden cardiac death: a distinct clinical and electrocardiographic syndrome. A multicenter report..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 20 (1992), pp. 1391-6
[187]
What do international guidelines say about therapy. Hypertension. 2001;19 Suppl. 3:S23-31.
[188]
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al..
The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure..
JAMA, 289 (2003), pp. 2560-72
[189]
Guidelines subcommittee..
1999 World Health Organization-international Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension..
J Hypertens, 17 (1999), pp. 151-8
[190]
Dahlöf B, Lindholm LH, Hansson L, et al..
Morbidity and mortality in the swidish trial in old patients with hypertension (STOP-Hypertension). Lance, 338 (1991), pp. 1281-5
[191]
Medical Research Council Working Party..
MRC trial of treatment of mild hypertension: principal results..
Br Med J, 291 (1985), pp. 97-104
[192]
Olsson G, Tuomilehto J, Berglund G, et al..
Primary prevention of sudden cardiovascular death in hypertensive patients. Mortality results from the MAPHY study..
Am J Hypertens, 4 (1991), pp. 151-8
[193]
Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovick DS, et al..
Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis..
JAMA, 277 (1997), pp. 739-45
[194]
Maphy and the two arms of Happhy..
JAM, 262 (1989), pp. 3272-4
[195]
Goldstein LB, Adams R, Becker K, et al..
Primary prevention of ischemic stroke. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association..
Circulation, 103 (2001), pp. 163-82
[196]
Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration..
Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood pressure lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials..
Lancet, 355 (2000), pp. 1955-64
[197]
Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Niskanen L, et al..
for the Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) study group. Effect of angiotensinconverting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: the Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) randomised trial..
Lancet, 353 (1999), pp. 611-6
[198]
Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Ekbom T, et al, for the STOP-Hypertension-2 study group..
Randomised trial of old and new antihypertensive drugs in elderl y patients: cardiovascular mortality and morbidity the Swedish Trial..
Lancet, 354 (1999), pp. 1751-6
[199]
UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group..
Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type-2 diabetes-UKPDS-38..
BMJ, 317 (1998), pp. 703-13
[200]
Staessen JA, Wang JG, Thijs L..
Cardiovascular protection and blood pressure reduction. A meta-analysis..
[201]
Dahlöf B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al, for the LIFE study group..
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the losartan intervention for endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol..
Lancet, 359 (2002), pp. 995-1003
[202]
Erbel R, Alfonso F, Boileau C, et al, for the task force of the European Society of Cardiology: diagnosis and management..
Recommendations of the task force on aortic dissection, European Society of Cardiology..
Eur Heart J, 22 (2001), pp. 1642-81
[203]
DeSanctis RW, Doroghazi RM, Austen WG, et al..
Aortic dissection..
N Engl J Med, 317 (1987), pp. 1060-7
[204]
Diseases of the aorta. En: Braunwald E, Zipes DP, Libby P, editors. Heart disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2001. p. 1422-56.
[205]
Siddiqui AK, Ahmed S, Delbeau H, Conner D, Mattana J..
Lack of physician concordance with guidelines on the perioperative use of beta-blockers..
Arch Int Med, 164 (2004), pp. 664-7
[206]
Magnusson J, Thulin T, Werner O, et al..
Haemodynamic effects of pretreatment with metoprolol in hypertensive patients undergoing surgery..
Br J Anaesth, 58 (1986), pp. 251-60
[207]
Stone JG, Foex P, Sear JW, et al..
Risk of myocardial ischaemia during anaesthesia in treated and untreated hypertensive patients..
Br J Anaesth, 61 (1988), pp. 675-9
[208]
Stone JG, Foex P, Sear JW, et al..
Myocardial ischaemia in untreated hypertensive patients: effect of a single small oral dose of a betaadrenergic blocking agent..
Anesthesiology, 68 (1988), pp. 495-500
[209]
Pasternack PF, Grossi EA, Baumann FG, et al..
Beta-blockade to decrease silent myocardial ischaemia during peripheral vascular surgery..
Am J Surg, 158 (1989), pp. 113-6
[210]
The hemodynamics of beta-blockade in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Circulation. 1987;76 Suppl. 3:III1-7.
[211]
Yeager RA, Moneta GL, Edwards JM, et al..
Reducing perioperative myocardial infarction following vascular surgery: the potential role of beta-blockade..
Arch Surg, 130 (1995), pp. 869-72
[212]
Raby KE, Brull SJ, Timimi F, et al..
The effect of heart rate control on myocardial ischemia among high-risk patients after vascular surgery..
Anesth Analg, 88 (1999), pp. 477-82
[213]
Jakobsen CJ, Bille S, Ahlburg P, et al..
Perioperative metoprolol reduces the frequency of atrial fibrillation after thoracotomy for lung resection..
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth, 11 (1997), pp. 746-51
[214]
Bayliff CD, Massel DR, Inculet RI, et al..
Propranolol for the prevention of postoperative arrhythmias in general thoracic surgery..
Ann Thorac Surg, 67 (1999), pp. 182-6
[215]
Mangano DT, Layug EL, Wallace A, et al..
Effect of atenolol on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity after noncardiac surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group..
N Engl J Med, 335 (1996), pp. 1713-20
[216]
Poldermans D, Boersma E, Bax JJ, et al..
for the Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography Study Group. The effect of bisoprolol on perioperative mortality and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients undergoing vascular surgery..
N Engl J Med, 341 (1999), pp. 1789-94
[217]
Boersma E, Poldermans D, Bax JJ, et al..
Predictors of cardiac events after major vascular surgery: role of clinical characteristics, dobutamine echocardiography, and beta-blocker therapy..
JAMA, 285 (2001), pp. 1865-73
[218]
Wallace A, Layug B, Tateo I, et al, for the McSPI Research Group..
Prophylactic atenolol reduces postoperative myocardial ischaemia..
Anesthesiology, 88 (1998), pp. 7-17
[219]
Brignole M, Menozzi C, et al..
A controlled trial of acute and long-term medical therapy in tilt-induced neurally mediated syncope. Am J Cardio, 70 (1992), pp. 339-42
[220]
Sheldon R, Rose S, Flanagan P, et al..
Effects of beta blockers on the time to first syncope recurrence in patients after a positive isoproterenol tilt table test..
Am J Cardiol, 78 (1996), pp. 536-9
[221]
Di Gerolamo E, Di Iorio C, Sabatini P, et al..
Effects of different treatments vs no treatment on neurocardiogenic syncope..
Cardiologia, 43 (1998), pp. 833-7
[222]
Flevari P, Livanis E, Theodorakis G, et al..
Neurocardiogenic syncope:prospective, randomized, cross-over evaluation of the effects of propranolol, nadolol and placebo on syncope recurrence and patients' well-being [abstract]. PAC, 23 (2000), pp. 666
[223]
Madrid A, Ortega I, Rebollo GJ, et al..
Lack of eficacy of atenolol for the prevention of neurally-mediated syncope in highly symptomatic population: a prospective double-blind, randomized and placebocontrolled study..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 37 (2001), pp. 554-7
[224]
Fitzpatrick AP, Ahmed R, Williams S, et al..
A randomized trial of medical therapy in malignant vasovagal syndrome or neurallymediated bradycardia/hypotension syndrome..
Eur J Cardiac Pacing Electrophysiol, 1 (1991), pp. 191-202
[225]
Mahanonda N, Bhuripanyo K, Kangkagate C, et al..
Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral atenolol in patients with unexplained syncope and positive upright tilt table test results..
Am Heart J, 130 (1995), pp. 1250-3
[226]
Brignole M, Alboni P, Benditt D, et al, for the Task Force on Syncop.e, European Society of Cardiology..
Guidelines on management (diagnosis and treatment) of syncope..
Eur Heart J, 22 (2001), pp. 1256-306
[227]
Oakley C, Child A, Iung B, et al, for the Task Force on the management of Cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy of th..
Expert consensus document on management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy..
Eur Heart J, 24 (2003), pp. 761-81
[228]
The effect of drugs on human fetus. En: Stechll, Ginsberg, editors. Scientific foundations of obstetric and gynecology. Oxford: Butterworth/Heinemann; 1991. p. 320-36.
[229]
Kubo T, Eduardo R, Azeved.o, et al..
Lack of evidence for peripheral alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade during long-term treatment of heart failure with carvedilol..
J Am Coll Cardiol, 38 (2001), pp. 1463-9
Idiomas
Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)

Subscribe to our newsletter

Article options
Tools
es en

¿Es usted profesional sanitario apto para prescribir o dispensar medicamentos?

Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs?

es en
Política de cookies Cookies policy
Utilizamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios y mostrarle publicidad relacionada con sus preferencias mediante el análisis de sus hábitos de navegación. Si continua navegando, consideramos que acepta su uso. Puede cambiar la configuración u obtener más información aquí. To improve our services and products, we use "cookies" (own or third parties authorized) to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior. Continuing navigation will be considered as acceptance of this use. You can change the settings or obtain more information by clicking here.