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Original article
DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2020.12.020
Available online 25 March 2021
Prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk factors in the Spanish population: the ENPE study
Prevalencia de obesidad y factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados en la población general española: estudio ENPE
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Carmen Pérez-Rodrigoa,b, Gotzone Hervás Bárbarab, Marta Gianzo Citoresb, Javier Aranceta-Bartrinaa,b,c,d,e,
Corresponding author
javieraranceta@gmail.com

Corresponding author: Sociedad Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (SENC), Euskalduna 5, escalera interior, entresuelo izquierda, 48008 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Spain.
a Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina y Enfermería, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Vizcaya, Spain
b Sociedad Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (SENC), Spain
c Departamento de Ciencias de la Alimentación y Fisiología, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
d Instituto Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas y Sanitarias (IUIBS), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
e Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
Received 14 August 2020. Accepted 17 December 2020
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Figures (2)
Tables (3)
Table 1. Prevalence of weight classifications according to body mass index values and abdominal obesity (waist/height index) in the total sample by sex, age bracket, autonomous community, socioeconomic level, and size of locality of residence
Table 2. Sociodemographic factors associated with the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity
Table 3. Prevalence of the clustering of 3 or more biological cardiovascular risk factors and the odds ratio of prevalence according to sociodemographic factors and lifestyles in the population older than 18 years
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Abstract
Introduction and objectives

Obesity is a significant public health problem associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity (AO) in the Spanish population aged ≥ 3 years and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and their association with CVRF.

Methods

The sample was drawn from the ENPE study (n=6800). The study protocol included individual anthropometric measurements, sociodemographic factors, food intake (food frequency questionnaire), physical activity, lifestyles, and health problems.

Results

The estimated overall prevalence of obesity (22.0%; 95%CI, 21.0-23.0) and AO (64.7%; 95%CI, 63.5-65.8) was higher in men, in persons aged ≥ 65 years, and in those with a lower socioeconomic level or from southern regions. Lifestyle pattern was significantly associated with obesity and AO (P=.011), which were less likely in people with an active lifestyle pattern (P <.0001). Obesity (OR, 1.85; 95%CI, 1.24-2.78) and AO (OR, 2.16; 95%CI, 1.1-4.24) were positively associated with CVRF. Clustering of CVRF with obesity and/or AO was higher in women (12.6%; 95%CI, 11.4-13.9) and in persons aged ≥ 65 years (32.7%; 95%CI, 30.0-35.4).

Conclusions

The prevalence of obesity and AO in the Spanish population is high; it is higher in men, increases with age, and is inversely related to socioeconomic status. A lifestyle pattern combining a higher level of physical activity, moderate sedentariness and a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with a lower probability of obesity, AO, and CVRF.

Keywords:
Obesity
Abdominal obesity
Lifestyle
Cardiovascular risk factors
Abbreviations:
AO
BMI
CVRF
Resumen
Introducción y objetivos

La obesidad es un importante problema de salud pública y se asocia con mayor riesgo de adquirir factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV). En este estudio se estima la prevalencia de sobrecarga ponderal y obesidad abdominal (OA) en población española de edad ≥ 3 años y se analiza la influencia de factores sociodemográficos y estilos de vida y la relación con los FRCV.

Métodos

La muestra procede del estudio ENPE (n=6.800). El protocolo incluía mediciones antropométricas individuales, factores sociodemográficos, consumo alimentario (cuestionario sobre frecuencia de consumo), actividad física, estilos de vida y problemas de salud.

Resultados

La prevalencia total estimada de obesidad (22,0%; IC95%, 21,0%-23,0%) y OA (64,7%; IC95%, 63,5%-65,8%) es mayor en varones, con edad ≥ 65 años y menor nivel socioeconómico y de la región sur. El perfil de estilos de vida se asocia significativamente con obesidad y OA (p=0,011), con menor probabilidad de obesidad en el perfil más activo (p<0,0001). La obesidad (OR=1,85; IC95%, 1,24-2,78) y la OA (OR=2,16; IC95%, 1,1-4,24) se asocian positivamente con FRCV. La coexistencia de FRCV con OA es mayor entre las mujeres (12,6%; IC95%, 11,4%-13,9%) y aquellos con edad ≥ 65 años (32,7%; IC95%, 30,0%-35,4%).

Conclusiones

La prevalencia de obesidad y OA en población española es alta, mayor en varones, aumenta con la edad y presenta relación inversa con el nivel socioeconómico. El perfil de estilos de vida con mayor nivel de actividad física, sedentarismo moderado y patrón alimentario mediterráneo se asocia con menor probabilidad de obesidad, OA y FRCV.

Palabras clave:
Obesidad
Obesidad abdominal
Estilo de vida
Factores de riesgo cardiovascular

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