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Available online 27 March 2024
Prevalence of obesity in Spain and its autonomous communities, 1987-2020
Prevalencia de la obesidad en España y en sus comunidades autónomas, 1987-2020
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Laura Feijooa, Julia Rey-Brandariza,b,
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juliarey.brandariz@usc.es

Corresponding author.
, Carla Guerra-Torta, Cristina Candal-Pedreiraa,b,c, María Isolina Santiago-Pérezd, Alberto Ruano-Ravinaa,b,c, Mónica Pérez-Ríosa,b,c
a Área de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Spain
b Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain
c Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Spain
d Servicio de Epidemiología, Dirección General de Salud Pública, Xunta de Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Spain
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Emilio Ortega Martínez de Victoria, Adriana Pané Vila, Amanda Jiménez Pineda
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Received 09 October 2023. Accepted 25 December 2023
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Table 1. Analysis of the trends in the crude prevalence of obesity and 95% confidence intervals by age group and sex in adults ≥ 15 years* between 1987 and 2020
Table 2. Analysis of the trends in the crude prevalence of obesity and 95% confidence intervals by autonomous community in adults aged ≥ 15 years* between 1987 and 2020
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Abstract
Introduction and objectives

Obesity is a public health concern with a strong impact on the health of the population. The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in the prevalence of obesity and to identify changes in this trend in Spain and its 17 autonomous communities (AC) among the population aged ≥ 15 years from 1987 to 2020.

Methods

A trend analysis of the prevalence of obesity was conducted with data extracted from the complete historical series of the Spanish National Health Survey and the European Health Survey in Spain using joinpoint regression models. For each period identified in the trend analysis, we estimated the annual percentage change (APC) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI). The results are presented for crude and standardized prevalences by the direct method accompanied by 95%CI, sex ratios, and relative changes in prevalences between periods.

Results

The prevalence of obesity increased from 7.3% (95%CI, 7.0-7.7) in 1987 to 15.7% (95%CI, 15.1-16.3) in 2020. In men, the prevalence increased until 2009 (APC,4.3; [95%CI, 3.8-5.0]) and then stabilized. In women, the prevalence increased until 2001 (APC,4.2; [95%CI, 2.7-8.8]) and subsequently also stabilized. The prevalence of obesity and its trend varied between AC, with three different patterns being observed with standardized prevalences: AC with a continuous increase, AC with an increase and subsequent stabilization, and AC with an increase and subsequent decrease.

Conclusions

The prevalence of obesity has increased in Spain since 1987, although in the last decade it has remained stable at values above 15%. However, in the group aged 15 to 24 years, the prevalence of obesity showed an increasing trend throughout the study period.

Keywords:
Obesity
Prevalence
Adults
Spain
Abbreviations:
95%CI
ACs
APC
ESHS
SNHS
WHO
Resumen
Introducción y objetivos

La obesidad supone un problema de salud pública con un alto impacto en la salud de la población. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la evolución de la prevalencia de obesidad e identificar cambios de tendencia en España y en sus 17 comunidades autónomas (CC. AA.) en población ≥ 15 años desde 1987 hasta 2020.

Métodos

Se realizó un análisis de la tendencia de la prevalencia de la obesidad, usando datos extraídos de la serie histórica completa de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud de España y de la Encuesta Europea de Salud en España, mediante modelos de regresión joinpoint. Para cada periodo identificado en el análisis de tendencia, se estimó el porcentaje de cambio anual (PCA) y su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95%). Además, se presentan resultados de prevalencias brutas y estandarizadas por el método directo acompañadas de IC95%, razones de masculinidad y cambios relativos en las prevalencias entre periodos.

Resultados

La prevalencia de obesidad aumentó de un 7,3% (IC95%, 7,0-7,7) en 1987 a un 15,7% (IC95%, 15,1-16,3) en 2020. En varones, la prevalencia de obesidad aumentó hasta el año 2009 (PCA=4,3; [IC95%, 3,8-5,0]) para posteriormente estabilizarse. En mujeres, aumentó hasta 2001 (PCA=4,2; [IC95%, 2,7-8,8]) y posteriormente también se estabilizó. La prevalencia de obesidad y su tendencia varía entre CC. AA., de modo que se observan tres patrones diferentes con las prevalencias estandarizadas: CC. AA. con un aumento continuo, otras con un aumento y una posterior estabilización, y otras con aumento y un posterior descenso.

Conclusiones

La prevalencia de obesidad aumentó en España desde 1987, aunque en la última década se ha mantenido estable con valores superiores al 15%. Sin embargo, en el grupo de 15-24 años, la prevalencia de obesidad mostró una tendencia creciente en todo el periodo de estudio.

Palabras clave:
Obesidad
Prevalencia
Adultos
España

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