Publish in this journal
Journal Information
Vol. 72. Issue 12.
Pages 1043-1053 (December 2019)
Share
Share
Download PDF
More article options
Visits
Not available
Vol. 72. Issue 12.
Pages 1043-1053 (December 2019)
Special article
DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2019.10.005
Full text access
Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 28th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2018)
Registro Español de Hemodinámica y Cardiología Intervencionista. XXVIII Informe Oficial de la Sección de Hemodinámica y Cardiología Intervencionista de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología (1990-2018)
Visits
...
Ana Belén Cid Álvareza,
Corresponding author
belcid77@hotmail.com

Corresponding author: Unidad de Hemodinámica y Cardiología Intervencionista, Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Travesía da Choupana s/n, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Spain.
, Oriol Rodríguez Leorb, Raúl Morenoc, Armando Pérez de Pradod
a Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Clínico Universtiario de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Spain
b Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain
c Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain
d Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario de León, León, Spain
This item has received
...
Visits
(Daily data update)
Article information
Abstract
Full Text
Bibliography
Download PDF
Statistics
Figures (9)
Show moreShow less
Tables (1)
Abstract
Introduction and objectives

The Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology presents its annual report on the activity data for 2018.

Methods

Data were voluntarily provided by participating centers. The information was introduced online and was analyzed by the Steering Committee of the Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology.

Results

In 2018, data were reported by 109 hospitals, 83 of these centers are public. A total of 157 632 diagnostic procedures (140 670 coronary angiograms) were performed. This year, the number of percutaneous coronary interventions increased to 72 520 (2.2% increase). There was also an increase in the complexity of coronary interventions: 10.6% in chronic total occlusions and 4.2% in unprotected left main treatment. A total of 21 261 interventional procedures were performed in the acute myocardial infarction setting, of which 91% were primary angioplasties (9.6% higher than in 2017). A total of 108398 stents were implanted, of which 93.8% were drug-eluting stents (3.5% increase). Radial approach was used in 89.4% of interventional procedures. The number of transcatheter aortic valve implantations continued to increase (25.3% increase, n=3537), as well as the number of percutaneous mitral valve repair procedures (21.4% increase, n=328), left atrial appendage closures (10.6% increase, n=644) and patent foramen ovale closures (81% increase, n=514).

Conclusions

An increase in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was reported in 2018, particularly in primary percutaneous coronary interventions. The use of the radial approach and complex procedures also increased. The number of structural procedures rose significantly, following the trend seen in recent years.

Keywords:
Registry
Cardiac catheterization
Percutaneous coronary intervention
Structural heart interventions
Abbreviations:
AMI
PCI
TAVI
Resumen
Introducción y objetivos

La Sección de Hemodinámica y Cardiología Intervencionista presenta su informe anual con los datos del registro de actividad correspondiente a 2018.

Métodos

Los centros españoles con laboratorio de hemodinámica proporcionan sus datos voluntariamente. La información se introduce online y la analiza la Junta Directiva de la Sección de Hemodinámica y Cardiología Intervencionista.

Resultados

Han participado en el registro nacional 109 centros, de los cuales 83 son públicos. Se realizaron 157.632 estudios diagnósticos, entre ellos 140.670 coronariografías, un 1,6% más que en 2017. Los procedimientos intervencionistas coronarios aumentaron en un 2,2% (n=72.520), y se registró un incremento en la complejidad del intervencionismo: del 10,6% en el tratamiento de oclusiones crónicas y del 4,2% en tronco no protegido. Se realizaron en total 21.261 procedimientos en infarto agudo de miocardio, de los cuales un 91% fueron angioplastias primarias (el 9,6% más que en el año previo). El acceso radial alcanzó el 89,4% de los procedimientos intervencionistas. En intervencionismo estructural, destaca un incremento en el implante percutáneo de válvula aórtica del 25,3% (n=3.537), en las reparaciones percutáneas de la válvula mitral del 21,4% (n=328), en los cierres de la orejuela izquierda del 10,6% (n=644) y en los cierres del foramen oval permeable del 81% (n=514).

Conclusiones

En 2018 se ha registrado un incremento en los procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos en intervencionismo coronario, especialmente en angioplastia primaria. Destaca el alto porcentaje de abordaje radial y el incremento en intervencionismo complejo. El intervencionismo estructural continúa con el crecimiento exponencial registrado en años anteriores.

Palabras clave:
Registro
Cateterismo cardiaco
Intervencionismo coronario
Intervencionismo estructural
Full Text
INTRODUCTION

One of the fundamental tasks of the Steering Committee of the Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology is the collection of activity data from Spanish catheterization laboratories to prepare the annual registry. This work, which has been carried out uninterrupted since 1990,1–27 allows a general view of the changes over time in interventional cardiology and helps to detect opportunities for improvement.

To reflect the growth and diversification of interventional activity in recent years, new variables corresponding to recently emerged techniques and procedures have gradually been introduced into the registry while those that have become outdated have been simplified or modified. Data are voluntarily contributed via an online database to facilitate participation. Data cleaning is performed by members of both the steering committee and the working group, given that the preliminary results are presented at the annual meeting of the working group, which took place in 2019 on May 9th and 10th in Ibiza, Spain.

The value of our annual activity record lies in its ability to reveal the degree of implementation of percutaneous techniques in Spain and to relate it to the international setting, as well as to evaluate and compare the development of interventional cardiology in the different autonomous communities. Even with the limitations of a voluntary registry,28 the free availability of the data promotes understanding of the actual distribution of resources and the trends in the use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Therefore, these data serve as a reference to guide interventions to improve health care in multiple ways, such as in research, prevention, treatment, and resource distribution. Moreover, the combined effort of the interventional cardiology field to record its activity exemplifies, besides its transparency, its commitment to continuously improving a health care system that is defined by its equity and universality.

This article represents the 28th report on interventional activity in Spain and collects activity from both public and private centers corresponding to 2018.

METHODS

In the present registry, data were collected on the diagnostic and cardiac interventional activity of most Spanish hospitals in 2018. Data collection was voluntary and was not audited. Anomalous data or data that deviated from the trend observed in a hospital in recent years were referred back to the responsible researcher from the center for reassessment. Data were collected via a standard electronic questionnaire that could be accessed, completed, and consulted through the website of the Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology.29 The data were analyzed by the Tride company (Madrid), in conjunction with a member of the committee. The data were compared with those obtained in previous years by the working group's steering committee. The results are published in this article, but a preliminary draft was presented as a slideshow at the working group's annual meeting.

As in previous years, the population-based calculations for both Spain and each autonomous community were based on the population estimates of the Spanish National Institute of Statistics up until July 1st, 2018, as published online.30 The Spanish population was estimated to have increased to 46 722 980 inhabitants. As in recent years, the number of procedures per million population for the country as a whole was calculated using the total population.

RESULTSInfrastructure and Resources

A total of 109 hospitals performing interventional activity in adults participated in this registry; most of these centers (n=83) were public (appendix 1). This number effectively represents the activity carried out in Spain, with most of the volume performed in centers with public funding. There were 239 catheterization laboratories: 144 (60.2%) were exclusively for cardiac catheterization, 62 (25.9%) were shared rooms, and 33 (13.8%) were hybrid rooms.

In terms of staff, the 109 centers had 463 active interventional cardiologists in 2018 (411 of them accredited). Of the total number of interventional cardiologists recorded, 99 (21.4%) were women, a figure that progressively increases each year (and is 12.5% more than in 2017). The number of residents in training increased to 90 in 2018 (12% higher than in 2017). Of nursing staff, there were 701 registered nurses and 81 radiology technicians.

Diagnostic Procedures

In 2018, 157 632 diagnostic studies were performed, representing a 2.1% increase vs 2017. Of these procedures, 140 670 (89.2%) were coronary angiograms (1.6% more than in 2017). There was another increase in the radial approach, used in 87.4% of all diagnoses in 2017 (a 1.7% increase vs 2017).

The average number of diagnostic studies was 3374 procedures per million population in Spain; in terms of coronary angiography, the Spanish average was 3011 per million, slightly higher than that registered in 2017 (2974). The distribution by autonomous community of coronary angiograms per million population is shown in figure 1.

Figure 1.

Coronary angiograms per million population. Spanish average and total by autonomous community in 2017 and 2018. Source: Spanish National Institute of Statistics.30

(0.35MB).

In line with the tendency of previous years, there was another progressive increase in intracoronary diagnostic techniques. In total, 7640 functional study procedures were performed with the pressure guidewire (9% more than in 2017). The gradual decrease in intracoronary ultrasound in favor of optical coherence tomography in recent years stopped in 2016 and 2017 and even reversed in 2018, with a 2.4% increase. However, the use of optical coherence tomography, whose application had stagnated, also underwent significant growth in 2018 vs 2017 (8.1%; 2934 cases vs 2714 in 2017). The changes in intracoronary diagnostic techniques in recent years are shown in figure 2.

Figure 2.

Changes in the numbers of the different intracoronary diagnostic techniques. OCT, optical coherence tomography.

(0.15MB).
Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

The number of percutaneous interventions (PCIs) recorded in 2018 was 72 520, which is 2.2% higher than the 70 928 PCIs in 2017. The changes in PCIs over time are shown in figure 3. There were 1551 PCIs per million population (vs 1524 in 2017 and 1478 in 2016). As in recent years, the PCI/coronary angiography ratio remained at around 0.5.

Figure 3.

Changes in the number of percutaneous coronary interventions between 2009 and 2018.

(0.14MB).

The reported data reveal a clear tendency for an increase in the number of interventional procedures considered complex. There was further growth in procedures performed on the left main vessel, reaching a total of 3815 (4.2% more than in 2017), which comprised PCI of the unprotected left main coronary artery in 75%. In addition, 2594 lesions were considered by operators to be chronic total occlusions (10.6% more than in 2017), as well as 7768 bifurcation lesions (17% more than in 2017). Finally, the number of restenosis interventions fell to 2695 (vs 2812 in 2017). The progressive decrease in recent years in this procedure parallels the greater penetration of the drug-eluting stent.

As with diagnostic activity, the radial approach predominated in PCIs and was used in 89.4% of interventional procedures (88.4% in 2016). The changes over time since its introduction are shown in figure 4, from an equal standing with the femoral approach in 2010 to its current dominance.

Figure 4.

Changes in the number of diagnostic and interventional procedures involving the radial approach since 2004.

(0.18MB).

The distribution by autonomous community of the 1551 PCIs per million population in Spain is shown in figure 5. Regarding the distribution per hospital, 23 centers performed more than 1000 PCIs in 2018 (2 less than in 2017) and 51 between 500 and 1000 (2 more than in 2017). In 2018, 72% of the centers reported the immediate outcome variables: a successful outcome without complications was reported for 96.6%; 1% reported severe complications (death, acute myocardial infarction [AMI], or the need for urgent cardiac surgery); and only 0.4% reported intraprocedural death.

Figure 5.

Percutaneous coronary interventions per million population, Spanish average and total by autonomous community in 2017 and 2018. Source: Spanish National Institute of Statistics.30

(0.28MB).
Stents

Implanted stents numbered 108 398 in 2018, which was a slight increase vs 2017 (105 529 stents). The stent/procedure ratio was 1.6, similar to that of previous years. The percentage of drug-eluting stents continued to increase, reaching 93.8% (101 713) vs 90.3% (95 253) in 2017. When the use of drug-eluting stents was analyzed by autonomous community (figure 6), a generalized increase was observed. Notably, these stents comprised 98% of all stents implanted in more than half of communities. The number of procedures with bioabsorbable devices was still very low (488 cases, 0.5% of implanted stents), as well as the number of procedures performed with dedicated bifurcation stents (179 cases, 0.2% of the total) or with self-expanding stents (33 cases, 0.03%). There was a significant increase in the use of polymer-free stents, which represented 5.3% of all implanted stents in 2018 (5792 cases) vs 3.6% in 2017 (3711 cases).

Figure 6.

Use of drug-eluting stents by autonomous community.

(0.35MB).
Other Devices and Procedures Used in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Parallel to the increased complexity of interventional procedures, there was a marked increase in the use of plaque modification devices. On the one hand, the use of rotational atherectomy devices reached a peak of the last 10 years with 1517 reported cases (1324 in 2017 and 1171 in 2016), while laser atherectomy devices experienced a marked increase vs 2017 (88 cases in 2018 vs 58 vs 2017). On the other hand, there was also an increased use of special balloons, such as cutting balloons (from 2096 in 2017 to 2925 in 2018), scoring balloons (from 1931 in 2017 to 2044 in 2018), and drug-coated balloons (from 2664 in 2017 to 2727 in 2018). Notably, due to their recent introduction, 47 procedures were performed with intracoronary lithotripsy balloons.

In 2018, there was a repeat in the tendency observed in 2017 for a significant increase in the implantation of short-term circulatory assist devices during complex interventions. The use was reported of 109 extracorporeal membrane oxygenators (vs 68 in 2017) and of 149 Impella devices (vs 106 in 2017).

Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in Acute Myocardial Infarction

The number of PCIs in AMI stabilized in 2018, with similar numbers to those recorded the previous year (21 261 interventions in AMI vs 21 395 in 2017). The most notable finding in this section is the marked increase in primary angioplasties, a 9.6% increase vs 2017 (19 490 vs 17 785), representing 91.6% of all PCIs in AMI. Regarding the pharmacoinvasive strategy, 680 rescue PCIs were recorded after fibrinolysis administration (3.1% of the total number of AMI procedures), as well as 1089 delayed or elective PCIs (5.1% of the total number of AMI procedures).

Primary PCI accounted for 26.8% of all angioplasties. The average number of primary PCIs per million population in Spain was 417 (vs 382 in 2017 and 356 in 2016). There was a largely generalized increase in the primary angioplasty rate by autonomous community (figure 7), although the growth was especially marked in Andalusia, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Aragon, and Castile and León. However, there may be a bias because some hospitals may not have introduced their data; thus, these figures should be taken with caution. The number of centers performing more than 300 primary PCIs per center was maintained (21 in 2018 and 2017), as well as the number of centers performing between 200 and 300 (21 in 2018 vs 22 in 2017). However, there was an increase in those that performed between 100 and 200 primary PCIs (31 in 2018 vs 27 in 2017.

Figure 7.

Primary angioplasties per million population, Spanish average and total by autonomous community in 2017 and 2018.

(0.33MB).

In terms of the technical aspects of AMI treatment, the radial approach, in line with the above-mentioned results, was the approach of choice and was used in 87% of PCIs in AMI. The same situation was seen with the use of drug-eluting stents in the setting of infarction, which reached 98% (92% in 2017). Finally, the number of procedures using thrombus extractor devices slightly decreased, from 32% in 2017 (6907) to 29% in 2018 (6205).

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

The most noteworthy finding in this section is the considerable increase in the number of permeable foramen ovale closures, which doubled in 2018 (from 284 cases in 2017 to 514 in 2018). There were 2 cases of device embolization and 3 implantation failures without complications. The number of atrial septal defect closures was stable vs 2017 (294 cases in 2017 and 2018), with 3 cases of device embolization. There were 22 patent ductus arteriosus closures (25 in 2017) and 12 ventricular septal defect closures (11 in 2017), 3 congenital and 9 acquired. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantations were performed in 35 cases (32 in 2019), with a success rate of 97%.

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Structural Heart Disease

In 2018, 528 valvuloplasties were recorded in adults, 51% on the aortic valve, 42% on the mitral valve, and 7% on the pulmonary valve. The number of isolated aortic valvuloplasties continued to increase, with 268 procedures in 2018 (252 in 2017); success was achieved in 261 patients (98.8%). Breaking with the tendency of recent years, there were also more mitral valvuloplasties: 225 were reported in 2018 (202 in 2017). The technique was successful in 216 patients (96%) and 6 complications were reported (3 severe mitral regurgitations and 3 cardiac tamponades).

Once again, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was the interventional procedure showing the greatest increase in use in structural heart disease. Overall, 3537 implantations were registered in 2018 vs 2821 in 2017 (a 25.3% increase), representing an average of 76 procedures per million population (vs 61 in 2017). If this growth is assessed by autonomous community (figure 8), there was a substantial increase for most of them vs 2017, with Cantabria, Galicia, Principality of Asturias, Community of Madrid, Castile and León, and the Basque Country above the average. TAVIs were implanted in 1894 patients older than 80 years of age (53.5%) and, regarding the indication, half of the patients had surgical contraindication or high surgical risk (49.5% vs 61% in 2017); the risk was intermediate in 17% of patients and not specified in the remainder. In terms of the type of prosthesis used, the expandable balloon valve was used in 1441 cases (40.7%), whereas the self-expanding valve was used in 1623 cases (45.8%); in 473 procedures, the type of valve used was not specified. In percutaneous procedures, femoral access predominated and was used in 2722 cases. For the first time in Spain, the transsubclavian/axillary approach was used (16 cases), as well as the transcaval (2 cases); surgical access was used in 360 patients, 50% transfemoral, and the transapical approach fell from 2.5% of cases in 2017 to 1.8% in 2018. Regarding in-hospital outcomes, 143 major intraprocedural complications (4%) were reported. Conversion to surgery was required for 0.4% (14 cases, 13 of them urgent). In-hospital death was reported in 65 patients (1.7%). A total of 346 patients (9.8%) required definitive pacemaker implantation.

Figure 8.

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation per million population. Spanish average and total by autonomous community in 2017 and 2018. No data are available for La Rioja.

(0.27MB).

In 2018, 644 left atrial appendage closure procedures were performed, representing a 10.6% increase vs 2017 (582 cases) (figure 9). Closures were performed with a disc-and-lobe device in 399 patients (58.8% of the total) and with a 1-piece device in 205 (31.8% of the total); in the remaining cases, the type of closure was not specified. There were 12 cases of procedural complications, defined as tamponade, embolism, or death, representing 1.8% of the total.

Figure 9.

Changes from 2015 to 2018 in atrial appendage closure and percutaneous mitral valve repair procedures.

(0.09MB).

Another notable finding was the significant growth in 2018 in percutaneous valvular repair with the MitraClip device (figure 9). The registry recorded 328 cases of mitral repair (270 in 2017, a 21.4% increase), with a total of 469 clips (1.4 clips per procedure, the same as in 2017). In addition, functional mitral regurgitations comprised 65.8% while 19.1% were degenerative and 15.1% mixed. In terms of outcomes, the mitral regurgitation was reduced to <grade 2 in 306 patients (94%; 9 without residual mitral regurgitation, 192 with grade 1 residual mitral regurgitation, and 105 with grade 2); insufficient improvement was achieved in the remaining 6%. Complications developed in 9 patients. Another notable finding from analysis of the registry data was the introduction to Spain of percutaneous techniques for treating the tricuspid valve; in 2017, the MitraClip device was used for the compassionate treatment of tricuspid regurgitation in 4 patients. Its use increased in 2018: 18 patients were treated with this technique, without complications. In addition, the first 2 prostheses were percutaneously implanted in 2018 using a bicaval technique, as well as the first Navigate tricuspid prosthesis.

Finally, there were 38 cases of endovascular aortic repair and 29 cases of renal denervation (24 in 2017). Each year sees the inclusion of new variables to reflect all of the techniques that have been introduced. Thus, it is notable that 11 procedures were performed with a coronary sinus reducer device in 2018 (1 in 2017) and 10 with the V-wave device (3 in 2017).

DISCUSSION

The activity recorded in 2018 clearly reflects the changes over time in interventional cardiology in Spain and allows us to envisage the future path for this field. PCI activity continues to show slow but steady growth and a clear qualitative leap, whose strongest indicators are the increase in all intracoronary diagnostic techniques, the high percentage of radial access, and the greater use of plaque modification devices in complex patients. In structural heart interventions, the overall number of techniques performed has increased in recent years, with significant growth in the number of TAVI, percutaneous mitral valve repair, patent foramen ovale closure, and atrial appendage closure procedures.

Regarding diagnostic activity, it is worth noting the higher number of procedures guided by intracoronary diagnostic techniques. In line with the recommendations of the recent European clinical practice guidelines on myocardial revascularization,31 which prioritize the use of intracoronary ultrasound for the diagnosis and treatment of left main coronary artery disease, an increase has been observed for the third consecutive year of the use of intracoronary ultrasound, parallel to the increase in percutaneous treatment of the left main trunk. In addition, and also in line with the new recommendations of the above-mentioned guidelines, which upgrade the indication for the use of optical coherence tomography for stent implant optimization (from IIb C to IIa B), this technique experienced significant growth in 2018 (8.1%) after plateauing in recent years. Particularly relevant is the continuous increase in the use of the pressure guidewire (9% vs 2017), supported by the excellent results obtained both in chronic patients and in those with AMI.32 In addition, the development of nonhyperemic indices, which facilitate and expedite the procedure,33 has helped to popularize this technique.

Despite the unstoppable growth of interventional activity in structural heart disease, the activity in PCI, far from being reduced, increased by 2.2% vs 2017. In 2018, PCI activity reached a rate of 1524 PCIs per million population, although this figure is still far from the recently published European average (2300 PCIs per million).34 Analysis of the collected data highlighted the considerable increase in complex PCIs. On the one hand, there was a higher number of PCIs in the unprotected left main trunk and bifurcations and, particularly, a significant increase (10.3% vs 2017) in the management of chronic occlusions. The latter is supported by the publication of several studies with positive results, most notably the EuroCTO35 European trial, which demonstrated the superiority of revascularization of chronic occlusions vs optimal medical therapy in improving quality of life. On the other hand, the indicators of an increase in the complexity of the procedures being performed are the large increase in the use of rotational and laser atherectomy, the greater use of cutting balloons, and the introduction of intracoronary lithotripsy36 and plaque modification systems for severely calcified lesions. Finally, it is important to note that, although we face more and more complex procedures, the use of the radial approach continues to increase in PCIs. Thus, 89.4% of PCIs in 2018 were performed via radial access, with the levels placing Spain at the forefront in this field.

One of the figures to highlight regarding PCIs in AMI is the significant increase in the number of primary angioplasties (9.6% more than in 2017), particularly in autonomous communities such as Andalusia, the Balearic Islands, and the Canary Islands, which have strengthened their health care network protocols for AMI. This is one of the best quality indicators of interventional activity in our country,37 which exceeded 400 primary PCIs per million population (417) for the first time and brings the Spanish average closer to the 455 primary PCIs per million population reported as the European average.34

Regarding the treatment of congenital heart diseases in adults, the number of permeable foramen ovale closures doubled. Undoubtedly, the indication for this technique has been expanded by the recent publication of several studies showing its efficacy vs medical therapy in the reduction of recurrent stroke in patients with a history of cryptogenic stroke.38

The growth in interventional activity in structural heart disease has been unstoppable in recent years and the annual activity record has allowed documentation of the temporal changes in these techniques in Spain. In 2018, the number of TAVIs increased again, from 61 implantations per million population in 2017 to 71 .This figure places us above the recently published European average,39 although we are still at a distance from countries such as France and Germany. The incontestable evidence in favor of this technique and the extension of its indication to low-risk patients40,41 favor its continued growth and augurs well for its accelerated growth in the future. Another of the main protagonists in 2018 was percutaneous mitral valve repair, which increased by 20.4% vs 2017. This technique has mostly been applied to patients with functional mitral regurgitation and high surgical risk, with a high success rate. These data are consistent with those recently published in the COAPT study,42 which showed reduced rehospitalization and mortality with this technique vs optimal medical therapy in patients with functional mitral regurgitation after adequate clinical and echocardiographic selection.

CONCLUSIONS

The 2018 Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry has revealed a slow but steady increase in the number of diagnostic and therapeutic coronary procedures, as well as a significant qualitative leap in the use of intracoronary diagnostic techniques and plaque modification devices in complex patients. The elevated use of the radial approach and the progressive increase in primary PCI as a treatment for AMI are clear indicators of the quality of Spanish interventional activity. In structural heart interventions, the overall number of techniques implemented in recent years has increased, with a significant growth in the number of TAVI, percutaneous mitral valve repair, patent foramen ovale closure, and atrial appendage closure procedures.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

None.

Acknowledgments

The Steering Committee of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology would like to thank the directors of cardiac catheterization laboratories throughout Spain, all of those responsible for data collection, and all of our peers whose work and enthusiasm ensure fair and first-rate patient care.

Appendix A
Material adicional

Community  Public hospitals  Private hospitals 
Andalusia  Complejo Hospitalario Torrecárdenas  Hospital Vithas Virgen del Mar 
  Hospital Universitario Puerto Real   
  Hospital Universitario Jerez de la Frontera   
  Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar   
  Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía   
  Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves   
  Hospital Universitario Juan Ramón Jiménez   
  Complejo Hospitalario de Jaén   
  Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga Carlos Haya   
  Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Victoria   
  Hospital Universitario San Cecilio   
  Hospital Costa del Sol   
  Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío   
  Hospital Universitario de Valme   
  Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena   
Aragon  Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa   
  Hospital Universtiario Miguel Servet   
Principality of Asturias  Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias  Centro Médico de Asturias 
  Hospital Universitario de Cabueñes   
Cantabria  Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla   
Castile and León  Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca  Hospital Recoletas Campo Grande 
  Hospital Universitario de Burgos   
  Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid   
  Hospital Universitario de León   
Castile-La Mancha  Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete   
  Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real   
  Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara   
  Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo   
Catalonia  Hospital Universitario Mútua de Terrassa  Hospital General de Cataluña 
  Hospital del Mar  Hospital Quirónsalud Barcelona 
  Hospital Universitario Vall d’Hebron  Hospital Universitario Quirón Dexeus 
  Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí  Hospital El Pilar 
  Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol   
  Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge   
  Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau   
  Hospital Universitari Clínic i Provincial   
  Hospital Universitario Dr. Josep Trueta   
  Hospital Universitario Arnau de Vilanova   
  Hospital Universitario Joan XXIII   
Valencian Community  Hospital Universitario San Juan de Alicante  Hospital Clinica Benidorm 
  Hospital General Universitario de Elche  Hospital Vithas Perpetuo Socorro Internacional 
  Hospital General Universitario de Alicante   
  Hospital General Universitario de Castellón   
  Hospital General Universitario de Valencia   
  Hospital Universitario Vinalopó-Torrevieja   
  Hospital Universitario La Fe   
  Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia   
  Hospital de Manises   
  Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset   
  Hospital Universitario de la Ribera   
Extremadura  Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Badajoz   
  Hospital de Mérida   
  Complejo Hospitalario de Cáceres   
Galicia  Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago  Hospital San Rafael 
  Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña   
  Hospital Universitario Lucus Augusti   
  Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo-Álvaro Cunqueiro   
Balearic Islands  Hospital Universitario Son Espases  Hospital Juaneda Miramar 
    Clıínica Rotger 
    Clínica Quirónsalud Palmaplanas 
    Policlínica Nuestra Señora del Rosario 
Canary Islands  Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria  Hospital Rambla Sur 
  Hospital Universitario Dr. Negrín   
  Hospital Universtiario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria   
  Hospital Universitario de Canarias   
Community of Madrid  Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón  Hospital Universitario Sanitas La Zarzuela 
  Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal  Hospital Vithas Nuestra Señora de América 
  Hospital de La Princesa  Hospital La Milagrosa 
  Hospital Central de la Defensa Gómez Ulla  Hospital Universitario Sanitas La Moraleja 
  Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre  Hospital Universitario HM Montepríncipe 
  Fundación Jiménez Díaz/Hospital General de Villalba  Hospital Ruber Internacional 
  Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro  Hospital Nuestra Señora del Rosario 
  Hospital Universitario de Torrejón   
  Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón   
  Hospital Clínico San Carlos   
  Hospital Universitario La Paz   
Region of Murcia  Hospital Univestiario Virgen de la Arrixaca  Hospital Quirónsalud Murcia 
  Hospital General Universitario Santa Lucía  Hospital HLA La Vega 
Chartered Community of Navarre  Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra  Clínica Universidad de Navarra/Madrid 
Basque Country  Hospital Universitario Araba-Txagorritxu   
  Hospital de Galdakao-Usansolo   
  Hospital Universitario de Cruces   
  Hospital de Basurto   
  Policlínica Gipuzkoa-Hospital Universitario Donostia   
La Rioja  Complejo de Salud San Millán-Hospital San Pedro   

The data from the Jiménez Díaz Foundation and the General Hospital of Villalba are grouped, as well as those of the University Clinic of Navarra and its headquarters in Madrid.

References
[1]
V. Mainar, M. Gómez-Recio, L. Martínez Elbal, M. Pan.
Spanish Registry of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology Activity in 1991 and 1092.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 45 (1992), pp. 622-626
[2]
M. Pan, L. Martínez Elbal, M. Gómez-Recio, V. Mainar.
Spanish Registry of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology Activity in 1992.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 46 (1993), pp. 711-717
[3]
L. Martínez Elbal, M. Gómez-Recio, M. Pan, V. Mainar.
Spanish Registry of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology Activity in 1993.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 47 (1994), pp. 783-790
[4]
J. Elízaga, E. García, J. Zueco, A. Serra.
Spanish Registry of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology Activity in 1994.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 48 (1995), pp. 783-791
[5]
J. Zueco, J. Elízaga, A. Serra, E. García.
Spanish Registry of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology Activity in 1995.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 49 (1996), pp. 714-722
[6]
A. Serra, J. Zueco, J. Elízaga, E. García.
Spanish Registry of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology Activity in 1996.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 50 (1997), pp. 833-842
[7]
J. Soriano, F. Alfonso, A. Cequier, C. Morís.
Spanish Registry of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology Activity in 1997.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 50 (1998), pp. 927-938
[8]
J. Soriano, F. Alfonso, A. Cequier, C. Morís.
Spanish Registry of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology Activity in 1998.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 52 (1999), pp. 1105-1120
[9]
J. Soriano, F. Alfonso, A. Cequier, C. Morís.
Spanish Registry of the Section of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology Activity for 1999.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 53 (2000), pp. 1626-1638
[10]
J.M. Hernández, J. Goicolea, J.M. Durán, J.M. Auge, Registry of the Working Group on Hemodynamics and Interventional Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology for the Year 2000.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 54 (2001), pp. 1426-1438
[11]
J.M. Hernández, J. Goicolea, J.M. Durán, J.M. Auge, Spanish Registry on Cardiac Catheterization Interventions. 11th Official Report of the Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology (years 1990-2001).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 55 (2002), pp. 1173-1184
[12]
J.M. Hernández, J. Goicolea, J.M. Durán, J.M. Auge, Spanish Registry on Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Interventions. Twelfth Official Report of the Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology (1990-2002).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 56 (2003), pp. 1105-1118
[13]
R. López-Palop, J. Moreu, F. Fernández-Vázquez, R. Hernández Antolín, Spanish Registry of Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Interventions. Thirteenth Official Report of the Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology (1990-2003).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 57 (2004), pp. 1076-1089
[14]
R. López-Palop, J. Moreu, F. Fernández-Vázquez, R. Hernández, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 14th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2004).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 58 (2005), pp. 1318-1334
[15]
R. López-Palop, J. Moreu, F. Fernández-Vázquez, R. Hernández Antolín, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 15th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2005).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 59 (2006), pp. 1146-1164
[16]
J.A. Baz, J. Mauri, A. Albarrán, E. Pinar, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 16th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2006).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 60 (2007), pp. 1273-1289
[17]
J.A. Baz, E. Pinar, A. Albarrán, J. Mauri, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 17th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2007).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 61 (2008), pp. 1298-1314
[18]
J.A. Baz, A. Albarrán, E. Pinar, J. Mauri, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 18th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2008).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 62 (2009), pp. 1418-1434
[19]
J.F. Díaz, J.M. De la Torre, M. Sabaté, J. Goicolea, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 19th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2009).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 63 (2010), pp. 1304-1316
[20]
J.F. Díaz, J.M. De la Torre, M. Sabaté, J. Goicolea, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 20th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2010).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 64 (2011), pp. 1012-1022
[21]
J.F. Díaz, J.M. De la Torre, M. Sabaté, J. Goicolea, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 21st Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2011).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 65 (2012), pp. 1106-1116
[22]
B. García del Blanco, J.R. Rumoroso Cuevas, F. Hernández Hernández, R. Trillo Nouche, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 22nd Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2012).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 66 (2013), pp. 894-904
[23]
B. García del Blanco, J.R. Rumoroso Cuevas, F. Hernández Hernández, R. Trillo Nouche, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 23rd Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2013).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 67 (2014), pp. 1013-1023
[24]
B. García del Blanco, F. Hernández Hernández, J.R. Rumoroso Cuevas, R. Trillo Nouche, Registro Español de Hemodinámica y Cardiología Intervencionista. Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 24th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2014).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 68 (2015), pp. 1154-1164
[25]
P. Jiménez-Quevedo, A. Serrador, A. Pérez de Prado, M. Pan, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 25th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2015).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 69 (2016), pp. 1180-1189
[26]
A. Serrador Frutos, P. Jiménez-Quevedo, A. Pérez de Prado, M. Pan, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 26th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2016).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 70 (2017), pp. 1110-1120
[27]
A.B. Cid Álvarez, O. Rodríguez Leor, R. Moreno, A. Pérez de Prado, Spanish Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Intervention Registry. 27th Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology (1990-2017).
Rev Esp Cardiol., 71 (2018), pp. 1036-1046
[28]
J.M. De la Torre Hernández, E. Eldelman.
From nonclinical research to clinical trials and patient-registries: challenges and opportunities in biomedical research.
Rev Esp Cardiol., 70 (2017), pp. 1121-1133
[29]
Sección de Hemodinámica y Cardiología Intervencionista de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Registro de Actividad SHCI. Available at: http://www.registroactividadshci.es. Accessed 30 Jun 2019.
[30]
Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de Enero. Resumen por comunidades autónomas. Población por comunidades y ciudades autónomas y tamaño de los municipios. Available at: http://www.ine.es/jaxiT3/Datos.htm?t=2853. Accessed 1 Jul 2018.
[31]
F.J. Neumann, M. Sousa-Uva, A. Ahisson, et al.
2018 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization.
EuroIntervention., 14 (2019), pp. 1435-1534
[32]
P.C. Smits, M. Abdel-Wahab, F.J. Neumann, et al.
Compare-Acute Investigators. Fractional flow reserve-guided multivessel angioplasty in myocardial infarction.
N Engl J Med., 376 (2017),
[33]
J.E. Davies, S. Sen, H.M. Dehbi, et al.
Use of the instantaneous wave-free ratio or fractional flow reserve in PCI.
N Engl J Med., 376 (2017),
[34]
E. Barbato, D. Dudek, A. Baumbach, S. Windecker, M. Haude.
Current trends in coronary interventions: an overview from de EAPCI registries.
EuroIntervention., 13 (2017), pp. Z8-Z10
[35]
G. Werner, V. Martín-Yuste, D. Hildick-Smith, et al.
A randomized multicentre trial to compare revascularization with optimal medical therapy for the treatment of chronic total coronary occlusions.
Eur Heart J., 39 (2018), pp. 2484-2493
[36]
T. Brinton, Z. Ali, J. Hill, et al.
Feasibility of shockwave soronary intravascular lithotripsy for the treatment of calcified coronary stenoses.
Circulation., 139 (2019), pp. 834-836
[37]
A. Cequier, A. Pérez de Prado, A.B. Cid, et al.
Requirements and sustainability of primary PCI programs in Spain for the management of patients with STEMI. SEC, AEEC, and SEMES consensus document.
REC Interv Cardiol., 1 (2019), pp. 108-119
[38]
J.L. Saver, J.D. Carroll, D.E. Thaler, et al.
RESPECT Investigators. Long-term outcomes of patients foramen ovale closure or medical therapy after stroke.
N Engl J Med, 377 (2017), pp. 1022-1032
[39]
D. Dudek, E. Barbato, A. Baumbach, S. Windecker, M. Haude.
Current trends in structural heart interventions: an overview of the EAPCI registries.
EuroIntervention., 13 (2017), pp. Z11-Z13
[40]
J. Popma, M. Deeb, S. Yakubov, et al.
Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement with a self-expanding valve in low-risk patients.
N Engl J Med., 380 (2019), pp. 1706-1715
[41]
M. Mack, M. Leon, V. Thourani, et al.
Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement with a balloon-expandable valve in low-risk patients.
N Engl J Med., 380 (2019), pp. 1695-1705
[42]
G. Stone, J. Lindenfeld, W. Abraham, et al.
Transcatheter mitral-valve repair in patients with heart failure.
N Engl J Med., 379 (2018), pp. 2307-2318
Copyright © 2019. Sociedad Española de Cardiología
Idiomas
Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)

Subscribe to our newsletter

Article options
Tools
es en

¿Es usted profesional sanitario apto para prescribir o dispensar medicamentos?

Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs?

es en
Política de cookies Cookies policy
Utilizamos cookies propias y de terceros para mejorar nuestros servicios y mostrarle publicidad relacionada con sus preferencias mediante el análisis de sus hábitos de navegación. Si continua navegando, consideramos que acepta su uso. Puede cambiar la configuración u obtener más información aquí. To improve our services and products, we use "cookies" (own or third parties authorized) to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior. Continuing navigation will be considered as acceptance of this use. You can change the settings or obtain more information by clicking here.